Presentation on theme: "History of Atomic Structure. Aristotle Democritus."— Presentation transcript:
History of Atomic Structure
Ancient Philosophy Who: Aristotle, Democritus When: More than 2000 years ago 460 BC Where: Greece What: Aristotle believed in 4 elements: Earth, Air, Fire, and Water. Democritus believed that matter was made of small particles he named atoms. Why: Aristotle and Democritus used observation and inference to explain the existence of everything.
Any experimental support for ideas?
Alchemists Who: European Scientists When: 800 – 900 years ago Where: Europe What: Their work developed into what is now modern chemistry. Why: Trying to change ordinary materials into gold.
Particle Theory Who: John Dalton When: Where: England, school teacher What: Described atoms as tiny particles that could not be divided. Thought each element was made of its own kind of atom. Why: Building on the ideas of Democritus in ancient Greece.
4 Part Atomic Theory 1. Elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles (atoms). Does this part hold true today?
2. Atoms of the same element are identical and different from other atoms. Does this part hold true today?
3. Atoms can physically mix and chemically combine in whole number ratios. Does this part hold true today?
4.In chemical reactions, atoms separate, join and rearrange. Atoms cannot be changed into other atoms. Does this part hold true today?
Did Dalton have experimental support for his theory?
Daltons Solid Sphere Model of the Atom
Discovery of Electrons Who: J. J. Thompson When: 1897 Where: England, physicist What: Thompson discovered that electrons were smaller particles of an atom and were negatively charged. Why: Thompson knew atoms were neutrally charged, but couldnt find the positive particle.
J. J. Thompson
Thomsons Cathode Ray Tube
Thomsons Plum Pudding Model of the Atom
Who: Robert Milliken When: Where: United States, physicist What: Conducted an experiment to determine the quantity of charge on an electron, 1-, in his famous oil drop experiment Why: He knew that atoms had electrons, wanted to determine charge
Atomic Structure I Who: Eugene Goldstein When: Where: England What: Conducted an experiment with a cathode-ray tube and found rays traveling in the direction opposite to that of the cathode rays. He concluded that they were composed of positive particles- protons. Why: He concluded that they were composed of positive particles- protons
Atomic Structure I Who: Ernest Rutherford When: 1911 Where: England What: Conducted an experiment to isolate the positive particles in an atom. Decided that the atoms were mostly empty space, but had a dense central core. Why: He knew that atoms had positive and negative particles, but could not decide how they were arranged.
Who: James Chadwick When: 1932 Where: England, physicist What: confirmed existence of the neutron Neutrons have no charge and have a mass nearly equal to that of a proton
Atomic Structure II Who: Niels Bohr When: 1913 Where: England What: Proposed that electrons traveled in fixed paths around the nucleus. Scientists still use the Bohr model to show the number of electrons in each orbit around the nucleus. Why: Bohr was trying to show why the negative electrons were not sucked into the nucleus of the atom.
Electron Cloud Model Electrons travel around the nucleus in random orbits. Scientists cannot predict where they will be at any given moment. Electrons travel so fast, they appear to form a cloud around the nucleus.