Presentation on theme: "What you see is not just parts!"— Presentation transcript:
1 What you see is not just parts! The GestaltistsWhat you see is not just parts!
2 The OppositionistsGrew as a reaction against voluntarism, structuralism and behaviorismEarly 1910’s and 20’s and Watsonian behaviorism is hotStill quite a bit of structuralism around, as wellThought were missing something: how we put together the wholeEmphasized NOT concentrating on parts
3 The Oppositionists Kurt Wertheimer Phi Phenomenon = apparent movement GermanPhi phenomenon got him startedPhi Phenomenon = apparent movementWhy interesting? Not easily explainable by examining the “parts”Gestaltists: although psychological experiences result from sensory elements, these experiences are different from the sensory elements themselvesThe phenomenological experience is different from the sum of the partsGestaltists = KantiansOrganism adds something to experience that not contained in sensory dataThat “something” = ORGANIZATIONGestalt = configuratio or pattern
4 The OppositionistsGestalists major point: behaviorists, structuralists, etc. all making same fatal error: attempting to divide up subject matter into elementsNot reject introspectionist method, but rejected how deal with the dataPhenomenologists:Studies the meaningful, intact, mental events without dividing them up for further analysisStudies the phenomenon, not the partsAre wholistic, molar, subjective, nativistic, and cognitive
5 Lewin’s Field Theory Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) Theory of human motivationHuman behavior determined by total number of psychological facts being experiences at that timePsychological fact = anything which a person is conscious ofLife space = sum of all psychological factsSome psychological facts exert positive influence, some negativeTotality or sum of these facts that determine behaviorImportant: must be conscious to be psychological factThus: memories must be consciousBehavior is dynamic because facts are dynamicThe “field” is always changing, but the whole determines the behaviora
6 Field Theory Used Field Theory from physics to apply to psychology Field = dynamic, interrelated systemAny part of this system influences every other partGestalten = small fieldsPerceived environment can = a fieldPerson = dynamic, interrelated systemWhat happens to a person influences whole person, not just one part
7 Nature versus Nurture Traditional behaviorists: person is passive receiver of environmentBrain = switchboard processing experienceGestaltists gave more active roleBrain ACTS on incoming sensory informationGives meaning and organizationNot learned, but innateIs a physical system
8 Law of Pragnanz“psychological organization wil always be as gooda s the controlling circumstances allow”“good” = simple, complete, concise, symmetrical, harmoniousGood figure, good perception, good memory = cannot be made more simple or organized through any perceptual shift
9 Gestalt Rules for Organization Gestalt = configurationExamine FIGURE versus GROUNDFigure = distinctive parts of array that you need to attend toGround = backgroundInterested in how people determined figure vs. groundTotal configuration critical: The WHOLE is GREATER than the SUM of its parts
10 Both of these figures have three elements Both of these figures have three elements. The figure on the left is called a __________; but the figure on the right is called a _____________.
11 Rules of OrganizationProximity: things that are in proximity to one another belong togetherSimilarity: things that are similar to one another are judges as belonging to that groupContrast: differences form edges or borders
14 Rules of Organization Good continuation: Closure: Continuing a pattern makes senseOtherwise, is a border or contrastNumber sequences, ordering and setsClosure:Closure is a contrast or edgeBrings the figure to an endShould be natural or we finish it!
18 Don’t you hate it when people don’t finish their !
19 Rules of Organization Good Figure or Pragnanz Common fate: Nature is full of symmetry; we prefer symmetrical shapes and formsNonsense figures are changed to make senseWe finish a figure to make a sensible figure vs. groundCommon fate:Using the gestalt rules of organization to “fix” the figureMake a sensible figure and ground
24 Perceptual Constancies When we get into an ambiguous situation:We must alter our preconceived ideasUse knowledge about the world + the information about the present sceneThus make sense of the visual imageWe assume that the world stays constant:People, animals and things stay the same size, color, shapeThus, the relative brightness, color or shape is determined by the intensity of the object RELATIVE to other objects in the scene
25 We must make judgments about the world One object in comparison to anotherWhich is bigger?Which if brighter or redder or louder?Use relationships within the image to determine size, color, shape, etc.
28 Visual Illusions Ambiguous figures Let’s see some examples No clear figure versus groundMust make a judgment using clues within the pictureYour own personal experience also plays a roleLet’s see some examples
37 Our abilities help us perceive some interesting phenomena: Perceived movement:Must determine if YOU or the ground is movingFeeling like your car is rolling backward when the other car moves slightly forward at a stop lightFlicker fusion: ability to see movies as a moving picture, not a bunch of quick little picturesPhi phenomenon: jumping of a light back and forth
39 Dynamic Qualities Gestalt rules apply to all our senses Audition, somatosensory, thermoregulationWhy is it funny that “dry ice” burns?Cross modalities, as well:Consistencies and expectations across sensesSomeone should look like they sound!
40 Dynamic QualitiesWhich of these is a Molumba and which is a Takete?
41 Dynamic Qualities Which is the cheerleader and which is the nerd? BerthaJenniferWhy is this important?Names can influence how people think about you!University of Chicago study: Traditional vs. African American names on resumes
42 Think Gestalt rules don’t influence your everyday behavior?
43 Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at an Elingsh uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer are in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae we do not raed ervey lteter by it slef but the wrod as a wlohe and the biran fguiers it out aynawy.
44 The brain and conscious experience Gestaltist solution to mind body problemBehaviorists: ignoredStructuralists and voluntarists: epiphenomenalism:Contencts of mind vary passively as function of sensory experienceDirect relation between body and indGestaltists: isomorphism between psychological experience and processes in brainExternal stimulation causes reactions in brainExperience those reactions as they occur in brainBrain actively, not passively, transforms sensory stimulationOrganizes and makes sense of infoSimplifies, completes, etc.Brain does this before we are “aware” of itIn innate processWhy important?Activities of brain correspond dynamically with content of thoughtBrain actively transforms incoming sensory information, and it is transformed information that we are aware of!Interestingly, neuroscience supports this idea
45 Subjective and objective reality What determines behaviorNot environment, because we don’t perceive or are aware of raw environmentMust be consciousness or subjective realityGeographical environment = objective or physical realityBehavioral environment = psychological or subjective realityThis has important implicationsGestalt rules alter our “reality”So do values, beliefs, etc.Each person has unique view of worldThis view shapes how we interact (indeed, it shapes what we perceive)Beliefs, then, have strong influence on behavior!
46 Critique Contributions: Criticisms Refuted both structuralism and simple behaviorismConcepts of organization of physical/psychological experienceRules of organizationChallenged rote learning modelsCriticismsNever attained mainstream acceptanceDifficult model to testIn many ways, were right in terms of organizational rules and idea of whole versus parts