Presentation on theme: "Agenda Goals Info sheet Overview Begin Lesson 9.1- Apportionment"— Presentation transcript:
1Agenda Goals Info sheet Overview Begin Lesson 9.1- Apportionment Hamilton MethodAdjusting a listHW Guide
2Discrete vs. Continuous Data (Variables) Discrete Math is not easily defined. NCTM states DM is “the study of mathematical properties of sets and systems that have only a finite number of elements.”Discrete – values that can be countedContinuous – all values in an interval between two specific values, such as temperature.
3Statisticians gain information about situations by collecting data for random variables.
5Portfolio Rubric Vocabulary Page Homework – Assignment # and date in top right corner. Due in pencil on due date; corrected in pen for final portfolio.News article / typed responseFormula notecard (optional)Extra-credit topic (extension - not discussed in class)Portfolios should represent your own work and understanding; these are individualized for each learner. This allows us (student, teacher, parent) to see your strengths/weaknesses for assessment purposes. Late portfolios will be evaluated for half-credit.
7Hamilton Method of Apportionment Gives each state integer partAdditional reps allocated by largest fractional part of exact representation
8Example 1- In a recent census… Alabama – Population 4041Missississippi – Population 2573Louisiana – Population 4220Allocate 19 members of the U.S. House of Representatives to these three states.1st find the percentage for each state’s population to the total population
9AL Miss LA Total State % of Delegates Delegates deserved Integer Part Fractional PartAssign additional MembersALMissLATotal
10Your Turn2) The Civics Arts Guild is having a show. There is room for 31 booths and the guild has decided that the booths will be assigned in proportion to the type of members in the guild. Th guild has 87 painters, 46 sculptors, and 53 weavers. Assign the booths to the three groups.
11Painters Sculptors Weavers Total Group % of Booths Booths deserved Integer PartFractional PartAssign additional BoothsPaintersSculptorsWeaversTotal
16Fairness of Apportionment Average constituency =Population of state/ number of reps from stateAbsolute unfairness=l(avg constituency of A) – (avg constituency of B)lRelative Unfairness=absolute unfairness / smaller average constituency
17ExampleFind the average constituency to determine which state is more poorly represented. State A has a population of 27,600 and 16 representatives and state B has a population of 23,100 and 14 representatives.What is the absolute unfairness of this apportionment?What is the relative unfairness?
18Average Constituency of A = Average Constituency of B =State A is more poorly represented.The absolute unfairness is1,725 – 1,650 = 75The relative unfairness =
21Lesson 9.2 The Huntington- Hill Apportionment Principle The student will use the Apportionment Criterion and the Huntington-Hill Apportionment Principle to determine the addition of representatives most fairly.
22Apportionment Criterion When assigning a representative among several parties, make the assignment so as to give the smallest relative unfairness.Example: Suppose that State A has a population of 13,680 and 5 representatives, and State B has a population of 6,180 and 2 representatives. Use the apportionment criterion to determine which state is more deserving of one additional representative.
23If State A gets the rep then: Calculate the average constituencies for each.Calculate the relative unfairness for each.If State B gets the rep then:Repeat steps A and BThe smaller relative unfairness is the best
25Huntington-Hill Apportionment Gives new rep preference by using the Huntington-Hill number.H-Hill number (based on Geometric mean)The larger number indicates which state should receive the additional representative.?
26ExampleIowa has a population of 2.8 million people and 6 representatives and Nebraska has a population of 1.6 million people and 3 representatives. Use the Huntington-Hill Principle to determine which state is more deserving of an additional rep.IowaNebraskaNebraska’s H-Hill number is larger so Nebraska deserves the additional rep.
27Your TurnThe Oil Consortium Board currently has 2 members from Naxxon, 2 from Aroco, and 1 from Eurobile. Use the Hamilton-Hill Apportionment Principle to decide which company should receive the next member on the board if Naxxon has 4,700 stockholders, Aroco has 3,700 and Eurobile has 1,600.Naxxon should get the next rep.
28Warm-UpUse the Huntington-Hill apportionment principle to decide which state is more deserving of an additional rep.The population of Alaska, New Hampshire, and Wyoming are .6 million, 1.1 million and .5 million, respectively. Alaska has 1 rep, New Hampshire has 2, and Wyoming has 1.
29Lesson 9.3 Applications of the Apportionment Principle. The student will use the Huntington-Hill principle to apportion representatives or other objects in order.
30Now we are going to determine how to apportion a given number of representatives and in what order they should be distributed.Use the H-Hill method to apportion 10 reps among Utah, Idaho, and Oregon.The recent populations are Utah, 1.7 mil; Idaho, 1.0 mil; and Oregon, 2.8 mil. Begin by giving one rep to each state. List the order in which the reps are apportioned.
31Calculate the H-Hill #’s Current RepresentationUtahIdahoOregon1234567
32Seat # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Goes to # of add’l reps Utah # of add’l reps Idaho# of add’l reps Oregon1234567
34Lesson 9.4 Other Paradoxes & Apportionment Methods The student will discuss other paradoxes and investigate and use other methods of apportionment to assign additional representatives/objects.
35Standard Divisor / Quota Total population / number of reps being allocatedComputed once (a single number) used for the entire apportionment process. The standard divisor is the # of constituents that each representative must represent.Standard Quota =State’s population / standard divisorMust be computed individually for each state/client. The standard quota is the # of representatives that a state deserves.
36Calculate the standard divisor and each state’s standard quota. We want to apportion 8 representatives among:State A with a population of 3 million.State B with a population of 4 million.State C with a population of 5 million.Standard Quotas:
37Using Hamilton’s Method: State A would receive 2 reps.State B would receive 3 reps.State C would receive 3 reps.Remember: Hamilton’s method uses the fractional parts to award additional reps.Using the Hamilton method each state receives either the number immediately above or below the standard quota.
38Definitions Lower quota – the standard quota rounded down. Upper quota – the standard quota rounded up.If in making an apportionment, each state is allocated a # of reps that is between its lower and upper quota, then we say the apportionment satisfies the quota rule.
39Restating Hamilton’s Apportionment Method Compute the standard divisor.Compute the standard quota for each state and round down to the lower quota. Assign reps.Assign additional reps according to the fractional parts of the standard quotas.
40Warm-Up We have 15 seats to apportion between the following groups: Freshmen with 420 students, Sophomores with 375 students, Juniors with 350 students and Seniors with 293 students.Use the Hamilton Method of apportionment to distribute the seats.Determine the relative unfairness between the freshmen and juniors.C) Which group is more poorly represented?
42Which group is more poorly represented? Average Constituencies:Freshmen – 105Sophomores – 93.75Juniors – 87.5Seniors – 97.7The freshmen are more poorly represented.
43Other paradoxesPopulation paradox – occurs when state A’s population is growing faster than state B’s population, yet A loses a representative to state B.New-States paradox – occurs when a new state is added, and its share of seats is added to the legislature causing a change in the allocation of seats previously given to another state.
44Jefferson’s Apportionment Method Compute the standard divisor.Rather than computing the standard quota, compute a modified quota by using a divisor that is smaller than the standard divisor for the apportionment.Modified quota = state’s population / modified divisorCalculate each state’s modified quota and round DOWN. Assign representatives.Keep varying the modified divisor until the sum of these assignments is equal to the number being apportioned.
45Ex) Southwest Water Authority Assume that California, Nevada, and Arizona are cooperating to build a dam to provide water to communities currently lacking adequate water supplies. Seats on the 11-member Southwest Water Authority, which governs the project, are assigned according to the number of customers in each state who use the water from the project. There are 56,000 customers in California, 52,000 in Arizona, and 41,00 in Nevada.
46Compute the standard divisor. Modified Divisor = _________ 13,545.4513,000CaliforniaArizonaNevadaPopulation56,00052,00041,000Standard QuotaModified quotaRound Modified Quota___________4.133.843.03DOWN
47Adams’ Apportionment Method Compute the standard divisor.Rather than computing the standard quota, compute a modified quota by using a divisor that is larger than the standard divisor for the apportionment.Modified quota = state’s population / modified divisorCalculate each state’s modified quota and round UP. Assign representatives.Keep varying the modified divisor until the sum of these assignments is equal to the number being apportioned.
48Compute the standard divisor. Modified Divisor = _________ 13,545.4514,000CaliforniaArizonaNevadaPopulation56,00052,00041,000Standard QuotaModified quotaRound Modified Quota___________4.133.843.03UP
49Webster’s Apportionment Method Compute the standard divisor.Rather than computing the standard quota, compute a modified quota by using trial and error to find a modified divisor.Calculate the modified quota for each state and round it in the usual way.Assign that number of representatives to each state.Keep varying the modified divisor until the sum of these assignments is equal to the total number being apportioned.
50Compute the standard divisor. Modified Divisor = _________ 13,545.4513,545.45CaliforniaArizonaNevadaPopulation56,00052,00041,000Standard QuotaModified quotaRound Modified Quota___________4.133.843.03NORMALLY
51How perfect are they? Yes No Hamilton Jefferson Adams Webster Can have Alabama paradoxYesNoCan have population paradoxCan have new-states paradoxCan violate quota rule
52Revisiting the Oil Consortium Creating a 9 member board Naxxon = 4700Aroco = 3700Eurobile = 1600Apportion using Hamilton MethodApportion using Huntington-Hill MethodApportion using Jefferson’s MethodApportion using Adams’ MethodApportion using Webster’s Method
53Textbook Problems as a class Page 548:Page 549: 45Page 550: 52Partner: Finish Handout if needed.You may work on your review for 9/23.The test will be on Thursday, 9/25 instead of 9/29. The Extra Credit and portfolio will be due on 9/29.