6 mosqueThe Islamic building for collective worship. From the Arabic word “masjid,” “a place for bowing down.”Mughals“Descended from the Mongols,” the dynasty started by Babur, a Muslim prince, rAkbarBabur’s grandson, called the Great, ascended to the throne at age 14, r Patron of narrative paintings. He commissioned a workshop of painters to illustrate the narratives of his and his uncle’s lives. He was fascinated with European art.JahangirAkbar’s son and successor, r
7 Qutb Minar that was erected in Delhi in the 15th century is a towering monument to the victory of Islam, engraved with inscriptions in Arabic and Persian proclaiming that the minaret casts the shadow of Allah over the conquered Hindu city.
8 Bichitr symbolized the power of Janhangir; The cupids inscribe the throne with the wish that the emperor would live a thousand years.The emperor is portrayed as above time, with a radiant halo combining a golden sun and a white crescent moon.The emperor is given costly gifts of horses, an elephant, and a book.Islam was the religion that gained adherents in India from the thirteenth through the fifteenth century.Jahangir (d.1627) preferring Sufi shaikhs over King James I of England; by Bichitr, earlier 1620's
9 The purpose of the Taj Mahal Aesthetic effect it createsThe tomb seems to float above the pools that punctuate the garden leading to it. The interplay of shadowy voids with light-reflecting marble walls that seem paper-thin creates an impression of translucency. The climatic dome is crown-shaped and the eye sweeps up to it along the pointed arches. There is a delicate balance between verticality and horizontality: it is exactly as wide as it is tall.Symbolic meaningThe minarets are symbols of ladders reaching toward Heaven and the surrounding gardens are symbols of Paradise. Together the Taj Mahal symbolizes the Throne of God perched above the gardens of Paradise on Judgment Day. The minarets hold up the canopy of that throne. In Islam, the most revered place of burial is beneath the Throne of God.The purpose of the Taj MahalA mausoleum to Shah Jahan’s favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Shah Jahan was eventually buried there as well.Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.Taj MahalAgra, India
10 Bhadrakali within the Rising Sun. Folio 10 from the Tantric Devi series. India, Punjab Hills, Basohli, ca Opaque watercolor, gold, silver, and beetle-wing cases on paper. Lent by Dr. Alvin O. Bellak, Philadelphia.
11 Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Marwar Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Marwarca opaque watercolor on paper 1 ft. 3 1/2 in. x 11 5/8 in.
12 Rajputs were "Sons of kings,” small Hindu dynasties that ruled northwestern India. They eventually fell to the Mughals, but some of them maintained a degree of independence although they paid a tribute to the Mughal treasury.An 1876 engraving of Rajputs of Rajasthan, from the Illustrated London News
13 Four stylistic elements of the miniature of Krishna and Radhna : The drawing style is lyrical and sensual.The decoration is rich with jewels, mangos, flowering shrubs, and the dark monsoon sky.The composition is simple and symmetrical, with a central focus on the pavilion and lovers.Lightning is one of the standard symbols for sexual excitement.The love between Krishna and Radha symbolized a model of the devotion, or bhakti, paid to Vishnu.Krishna“The Blue God”, the most popular Vishnu avatar. He descends to earth to aid mortals. Krishna was a herdsman who spent an idyllic existence tending his cows, fluting, and sporting with beautiful herdswomen.Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.Krishna and Radha in a Pavilionca opaque watercolor on paper 11 1/8 in. x 7 3/4 in.
14 Frederick W. Stevens Victoria Terminus Mumbai (Bombay), India Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.Frederick W. StevensVictoria TerminusMumbai (Bombay), India
15 Two features that characterize south Indian temple complexes like the one at Mandurai. Positioned like boxes within boxes, each set of walls had taller gopuras than those of the previous circuit, the towers reaching colossal size and dwarfing the actual central temples.The ornamentation is extremely rich, consisting of row after row of brightly painted stucco sculptures representing the vast pantheon of Hindu deities and attendant figures.Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.Gopura, Great templeMadurai, India17th century
16 Main temple group at Wat Mahathat, Sukhothai ancient city.
17 Walking Buddha Sukhothai, Thailand Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.Walking BuddhaSukhothai, Thailand14th century bronze 7 ft. 2 1/2 in. high
20 Dish with Two Mynah birds on flowering branch Vietnam Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.Dish with Two Mynah birds on flowering branchVietnam16th century stoneware painted with underglaze-cobalt 1 ft. 2 1/2 in. diameter
21 Using the internet an/or available resources, compare the Buddhist structures at the following sites: Sanchi (FIGS. 6-5 & 6-6), Karli (FIG. 6-8), Borobudur (FIG.6-26), Byodoin, Uji (FIG ), the Bayon at Ankor Thom (FIG. 6-31), and Yingxian (FIG. 7-21). What was the purpose of each, and how is that purpose reflected in the forms?
22 Borobudur, Java, Indonesia Great StupaSanchi, Indiathird century B.C.E. to first century C.E.Cosmic MountainBorobudur, Java, Indonesiaca. 800 C.E. 400 ft. wideChaitya HallKarle, Indiaca. 100 C.E.IDENTIFY COMPLETELY:Great Stupa, Sanchi, India; third century B.C.E. to first century C.ESTYLISTIC PERIOD OR CULTUREBuddhists, , Ashokka’s reignSUBJECT/ICONOGRAPHYThe stupa can be seen as a sphere merged with the earth with only its upper half exposed.Seen from above the stupa is a mandala. If the mandala is architectonic, and the stupa is a mandala, then the relation of one to the other is a reflective idea wherein one is the image of the other. The stupa is thus an image of the world.When the Sanchi stupa was built, the Buddha was not portrayed in human form. Maybe he was seen as having transcended human understanding, or maybe the early Buddhists wanted to underline that he had transcended the condition of birth-and-death that marks embodied existence. STYLE/TECHNIQUEOrientation gives direction and is the vital factor in assuring the effectiveness of a sacred place. When constructed, the temple must not only be placed at the Center of the World, but it must be aligned with the four cardinal points of the compass (North, South, East and West).At the very beginning of the process, a simple upright pole or gnomon is sufficient to cast the shadow from which it is possible to orient a circle. Ancient Sanskrit texts on temple foundation detail the derivation of the temple plan from orientation of the circle. The site having been chosen, an upright was thrust into the ground at its true center. A circle was drawn around the pole. The arc of the drawn circle would be cut by the shadow of the gnomon which falls on it upon the sun's rising. This procedure gives a true East-West axis, thus the derivation of the term "orientation," from the Latin oriens, meaning East (occidens is the West).In the Native American tradition the "circle of the year" represents the "world", an instantaneous image of the passing of time over the basic cosmic cycle: one complete planetary journey around the sun. To this day, all Mosques and Cathedrals are oriented, which is to say that they face the East or the rising sun.SIGNIFIGANCE/FUCTION/PURPOSEA stupa is a dome-shaped mound that mimics the funerary mounds used to mark the graves of great kings. The first Buddhist stupas enshrined the Buddha's physical relics (bones and teeth), and thus gave him royal status. Another sign of this claim is the three-layer stone umbrella visible at the top of the stupa, since the umbrella was also a royal symbol (unfortunately, these umbrellas often inadvertently also served as very effective lightning rods). The Sanchi stupa has a walkway built halfway up the mound; the faithful would use this to circle the stupa to pay homage to the Buddha. Motion was always clockwise, since this kept one's right side (considered better) toward the relics at the center. The perimeter wall has a gateway at each cardinal direction, and the carvings on these illustrate events from the Buddha's life and past lives. As with the medieval European cathedrals, these were used to impart the faith to a largely illiterate audience, and also through the stories to emphasize cultivating virtues and avoiding faults. Phoenix HallByodoin, Uji, Kyoto Prefecture, JapanHeian period 1053Foguang Si PagodaYingxian, ChinaLiao Dynasty 1056 C.E.Towers of the BayonAngkor Thom, Cambodia12th to 13th centuries C.E.
23 Write at least two pages analyzing Bichitr’s picture of Jahinger Preferring a Sufi Shaykh to Kings (FIG and p. 748). Look carefully at each element of the painting and describe everything that you see. After describing the objects, analyze their style. Use the following terms in your analysis: foreshortening, picture plane, hue, line, pattern, shape and mass. What elements come from the Islamic tradition and which show influences from Western art. Then look thorough the text and see if you can find objects or images that relate to what you have written.Jahangir (d.1627) preferring Sufi shaikhs over King James I of England; by Bichitr, earlier 1620's