mosque The Islamic building for collective worship. From the Arabic word masjid, a place for bowing down. Mughals Descended from the Mongols, the dynasty started by Babur, a Muslim prince, r. 1526-1530. Akbar Baburs grandson, called the Great, ascended to the throne at age 14, r.1556-1605. Patron of narrative paintings. He commissioned a workshop of painters to illustrate the narratives of his and his uncles lives. He was fascinated with European art. Jahangir Akbars son and successor, r. 1605-1627.
Qutb Minar that was erected in Delhi in the 15 th century is a towering monument to the victory of Islam, engraved with inscriptions in Arabic and Persian proclaiming that the minaret casts the shadow of Allah over the conquered Hindu city.
Jahangir (d.1627) preferring Sufi shaikhs over King James I of England; by Bichitr, earlier 1620's Islam was the religion that gained adherents in India from the thirteenth through the fifteenth century. Bichitr symbolized the power of Janhangir; The cupids inscribe the throne with the wish that the emperor would live a thousand years. The emperor is portrayed as above time, with a radiant halo combining a golden sun and a white crescent moon. The emperor is given costly gifts of horses, an elephant, and a book.
Taj Mahal Agra, India 1632-1647 The purpose of the Taj Mahal A mausoleum to Shah Jahans favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Shah Jahan was eventually buried there as well. Symbolic meaning T he minarets are symbols of ladders reaching toward Heaven and the surrounding gardens are symbols of Paradise. Together the Taj Mahal symbolizes the Throne of God perched above the gardens of Paradise on Judgment Day. The minarets hold up the canopy of that throne. In Islam, the most revered place of burial is beneath the Throne of God. Aesthetic effect it creates The tomb seems to float above the pools that punctuate the garden leading to it. The interplay of shadowy voids with light-reflecting marble walls that seem paper-thin creates an impression of translucency. The climatic dome is crown-shaped and the eye sweeps up to it along the pointed arches. There is a delicate balance between verticality and horizontality: it is exactly as wide as it is tall.
Bhadrakali within the Rising Sun. Folio 10 from the Tantric Devi series. India, Punjab Hills, Basohli, ca. 1660-70. Opaque watercolor, gold, silver, and beetle-wing cases on paper. Lent by Dr. Alvin O. Bellak, Philadelphia.
Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Marwar ca. 1880 opaque watercolor on paper 1 ft. 3 1/2 in. x 11 5/8 in.
An 1876 engraving of Rajputs of Rajasthan, from the Illustrated London News Rajputs were "Sons of kings, small Hindu dynasties that ruled northwestern India. They eventually fell to the Mughals, but some of them maintained a degree of independence although they paid a tribute to the Mughal treasury.
Krishna and Radha in a Pavilion ca. 1760 opaque watercolor on paper 11 1/8 in. x 7 3/4 in. Krishna The Blue God, the most popular Vishnu avatar. He descends to earth to aid mortals. Krishna was a herdsman who spent an idyllic existence tending his cows, fluting, and sporting with beautiful herdswomen. The love between Krishna and Radha symbolized a model of the devotion, or bhakti, paid to Vishnu. Four stylistic elements of the miniature of Krishna and Radhna : The drawing style is lyrical and sensual. The decoration is rich with jewels, mangos, flowering shrubs, and the dark monsoon sky. The composition is simple and symmetrical, with a central focus on the pavilion and lovers. Lightning is one of the standard symbols for sexual excitement.
Frederick W. Stevens Victoria Terminus Mumbai (Bombay), India 1878-1887
Gopura, Great temple Madurai, India 17th century Two features that characterize south Indian temple complexes like the one at Mandurai. Positioned like boxes within boxes, each set of walls had taller gopuras than those of the previous circuit, the towers reaching colossal size and dwarfing the actual central temples. The ornamentation is extremely rich, consisting of row after row of brightly painted stucco sculptures representing the vast pantheon of Hindu deities and attendant figures.
Main temple group at Wat Mahathat, Sukhothai ancient city.
Walking Buddha Sukhothai, Thailand 14th century bronze 7 ft. 2 1/2 in. high
Dish with Two Mynah birds on flowering branch Vietnam 16th century stoneware painted with underglaze-cobalt 1 ft. 2 1/2 in. diameter
Using the internet an/or available resources, compare the Buddhist structures at the following sites: Sanchi (FIGS. 6-5 & 6-6), Karli (FIG. 6-8), Borobudur (FIG.6-26), Byodoin, Uji (FIG. 8-12 ), the Bayon at Ankor Thom (FIG. 6-31), and Yingxian (FIG. 7-21). What was the purpose of each, and how is that purpose reflected in the forms?
Great Stupa Sanchi, India third century B.C.E. to first century C.E. Chaitya Hall Karle, India ca. 100 C.E. Cosmic Mountain Borobudur, Java, Indonesia ca. 800 C.E. 400 ft. wide Towers of the Bayon Angkor Thom, Cambodia 12th to 13th centuries C.E. Phoenix Hall Byodoin, Uji, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan Heian period 1053 Foguang Si Pagoda Yingxian, China Liao Dynasty 1056 C.E.
Jahangir (d.1627) preferring Sufi shaikhs over King James I of England; by Bichitr, earlier 1620's Write at least two pages analyzing Bichitrs picture of Jahinger Preferring a Sufi Shaykh to Kings (FIG. 25-4 and p. 748). Look carefully at each element of the painting and describe everything that you see. After describing the objects, analyze their style. Use the following terms in your analysis: foreshortening, picture plane, hue, line, pattern, shape and mass. What elements come from the Islamic tradition and which show influences from Western art. Then look thorough the text and see if you can find objects or images that relate to what you have written.