Presentation on theme: "Flying the F-104 Starfighter around the World"— Presentation transcript:
1 Flying the F-104 Starfighter around the World Tom MahanFor the BUSC5/18/12
2 F-104 Starfighter Overview The World-Wide Family of StarfightersBrief History – Era Deterrence & CombatEurope, Pakistan, Taiwan & Viet NamGlobal Operations – ’66 – ’71Arizona – Combat Crew Training German AFEurope – Exchange Duty with the GAFSoutheast Asia – Combat over NVN & LaosAreas of OperationsTacticsMy perspective of the F-104 –>
4 Lockheed F-104 Starfighter Specification of the F-104A:Engine: One General Electric J79-GE-3A/3B turbojet, 9600 lb.s.t. dry and 14,800 lb.s.t. with afterburning. Performance: Maximum speed 1037 mph at 50,000 feet. Stalling speed 198 mph. Initial climb rate 60,395 feet per minute. Combat ceiling 55,200 feet. Service ceiling was 64,795 feet. Normal range 730 miles. Maximum range with external drop tanks 1400 miles. Fuel: Internal fuel capacity was 897 US gallons, and maximum fuel capacity with two wingtip tanks and two underwing tanks was 1627 US gallons. Dimensions: Wingspan 21 feet 9 inches, length 54 feet 8 inches, height 13 feet 5 inches, wing area square feet. Weights: 13,184 pounds empty, 17,988 pounds combat, 22,614 pounds gross, 25,840 pounds maximum takeoff. Armament: Armament consisted of a single 20-mm M61A1 cannon in the fuselage with 725 rounds, plus a pair of wingtip-mounted AIM-9B Sidewinder infrared homing air-to-air missiles. Alternatively, these wingtip shoes could carry a or a Imp.gall. droptank.USAF Tactical Air Command The subsequent F-104C entered service with Tactical Air Command as a multi-role fighter and fighter-bomber. The 479th Tactical Fighter Wing at George AFB, California, was the first unit to equip with the type in September Although not an optimum platform for the theatre, the F-104 did see limited service in the Vietnam War. Again, in 1967, these TAC aircraft were transferred to the Air National Guard.Dutch F-104G
5 2575 Total with 15 Variants by 15 Countries Starfighter World-Wide OperationsUnited StatesBelgium Canada Republic of China Denmark Germany Greece Italy Japan Jordan Netherlands Norway Pakistan Spain TurkeyThe USAF was less than satisfied with the Starfighter and procured only 296 examples in single-seat and two-seat versions. At the time, USAF doctrine placed little importance on air superiority (the fighter-to-fighter mission), and the Starfighter was deemed inadequate for either the interceptor (meaning fighter-to-bomber) or tactical fighter-bomber role, lacking both payload capability and endurance compared to other USAF aircraft. Its U.S. service was quickly wound down after The last F-104As in regular USAF service were re-engined with more powerful and more reliable J79-GE-19 engines in The last USAF Starfighters left active service in It continued in use with the Puerto Rico Air National Guard until 1975.2575 Total with 15 Variants by 15 CountriesIn Service – 2003 (45 Years)
6 Starfighter System Effectiveness (Future Fighter Requirements Development)
7 Starfighter History – Folklore vs. Performance Skeptics: The F-104 couldn’t turn tightly, was short-ranged, couldn’t carry a load & not an all-weather interceptor“That depended – tactics, pilots, logistics……….”You go into a conflict with what you have….Key to Value was the era – at IOC of 1958 the Starfighter was the only supersonic air-to-air fighter in the USAFF-102 F-106 Development both were behind scheduleF-4 adaptation from the USN needed timeAllies needed a supersonic counter to the evolving MiG-21Filled the tactical gap until the mid-60s when:F-102 / F-106 could take over CONUS Air DefenseF-4C could take over Air-to-Air/Air-to-Ground world-wideContinued to serve our Allies’ deterrent needsThe Starfighter was a very effective system for its time. It served our Nation & our Allies well.
8 Berlin Crisis - 1961 August 13, 1961 The wall goes up Mission - DeterrenceJune 1961Khrushchev threatens Kennedy - ViennaWest GermanyEastGermanyRamstein ABMach = 2.0Air CorridorsIn the June 1961 meeting between President Kennedy and Soviet Premier Khrushchev in Vienna, the tension over Berlin intensified. Premier Khrushchev threatened to sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany which would end the existing 4- power agreements guaranteeing American, British and French access rights to West Berlin. He also stated that if US insisted on occupation rights after the treaty, US should expect the Soviet to meet force by force. Under this Soviet threat, President Kennedy returned to the US and started planning to mobilize the reserve units for active duties so as to strengthen US combat troops in Europe. The US Congress gave President Kennedy this requested power in August Stirred by this crisis, the number of Germans leaving East Germany increased significantly, further draining the already depressed economy of East Germany. On August , the East German and Soviet troops closed all the crossing points between East and West Berlin, seal off the border first with fence and then with concrete wall topped with barbed wire.On 1 November; the Air Force mobilized three more ANG fighter interceptor squadrons. In late October and early November, eight of the tactical fighter units flew to Europe with their 216 aircraft in operation "Stair Step," the largest jet deployment in the Air Guard's history. Because of their short range, 60 Air Guard F-104 interceptors were airlifted to Europe in late November. The United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) lacked spare parts needed for the ANG's aging F-84s and F-86s. Some units had been trained to deliver tactical nuclear weapons, not conventional bombs and bullets. They had to be retrained for conventional missions once they arrived on the continent. The majority of mobilized Air Guardsmen remained in the U.S.On August 30, 1961, President Kennedy ordered the National Guardsmen and Reservists to active duty in response to Soviet moves to cut off allied access to Berlin. He mobilized 28 Air National Guard (ANG) squadrons of which 11 were sent to Europe to reinforce USAFE.In late October and early November, eight of the tactical fighter units flew to Europe with their 216 aircraft in operation "Stair Step," the largest jet deployment in the Air Guard's history.Because of their short range, 60 Air Guard F-104 interceptors were airlifted to Europe in late November. They consisted of 3 squadrons of early model of F-104, one from the Arizona ANG, one from Tennessee ANG and one from South Carolina ANG. These 3 ANG squadrons received their F-104A’s and F-104B’s between February and July of 1960 from the Air Defense Command. The 3 F-104 ANG squadrons were officially mobilized on October 1, Since the F-104s lacks the range and had no in-flight refueling capability, they were airlifted to Europe by MATS Douglas C-124’s in November 1961 under “Operation Brass Ring”. Their missions were to conduct air superiority and offensive air support operations if required to defend West-Berlin.In Europe, these squadrons were assigned to USAFE. The Arizona ANG 197th Fighter Interceptor Squadron (FIS) and Tennessee ANG 151 FIS were assigned to Ramstein Air Base in West Germany under the 86th Air (Defense) Division of the 17th Air Force. The South Carolina ANG 157 FIS was assigned to Moron AFB, Spain under the 65th Air Defense Division.In addition to the F-104A’s, each ANG squadron also sent 2 F-104B’s along for proficiency training while stationed in Europe. Unfortunately, a few F-104A’s and F-104’Bs crashed and were written off during their deployment in Europe. The tension ended in the summer of These 3 F-104 squadrons were officially demobilized in August Shortly after, they were redeployed back to their home bases in the US. Within about a month after the 197th FIS's F-104A/Bs were returned to the States, they were transferred to the other 2 ANG F-104 squadrons. This is because the mission of the 197th FIS AZ ANG was changed and it was redesignated 161st Air Transport Group flying the C-97 Stratofreighter.Air Force Magazine - 9/11 - VolThe Modular DeploymentAmong those whose lives were disrupted by the Berlin Crisis of 1961 were the Air Guardsmen of the 151st Fighter-Interceptor Squadron at McGheeTyson Air Force Base in Knoxville, Tenn. Alerted in August for possible recall to active duty, members wound up their private affairs and prepared to go, but for a while, activation looked unlikely. Then orders came on Oct. 9 to report for deployment Nov. 1.For the past year, the squadron—which was part of the 134th Fighter-Interceptor Group—had flown the stubby-winged F-104A Starfighter, called "the Zipper" for its blazing Mach 2 speed. The active duty force had F-104Cs and had passed the F-104A, which had been operational only since 1958, to selected Guard units.The commander, Maj. Robert W. Aiken, led an augmented squadron with the group’s 18 F-104A fighters, its two F-104B two-seat proficiency trainers, and about half of the unit’s personnel in the deployment to Ramstein AB, West Germany. Most of the others activated went elsewhere, including to bases in France to fill in understrength Guard units.The F-104A did not deploy for long distances in the conventional manner. It needed frequent fueling because of its short operating range, and unlike the F-104C, it could not be fitted with a refueling probe to gas up from a KB-50 tanker. The standard procedure was to take the airplane apart and airlift it to the new location.Fortunately, the F-104 was easy to disassemble. The entire tail assembly, including the aft fuselage behind the wing, came off as a unit to allow removal of the engine. The forward fuselage was winched aboard a C-124 through the big cargo door in front and stowed according to the predetermined loading plan, surrounded by the tail, wings, and nose.By Nov. 20, the squadron was at Ramstein, ready to operate. Performance was excellent from the beginning, as the veteran Guardsmen were highly qualified. Charles F. Brakebill, on the deployment as executive officer, remembers that one of the squadron’s pay clerks was a certified public accountant back home in Knoxville.In May 1962, the squadron set a record, both for US Air Forces in Europe and for the Air Force as a whole, for the highest flying time per jet fighter aircraft assigned for any one month. The average of 46 hours, 27 minutes was built by 17 fighters flying the entire month with the 18th aircraft joining in on the last day.November, ANG F-104A arrive in Europe
9 PAK F-104 Starfighters vs. Indian AF 1965 & 1971Gnat ‘65 Incident‘71 F-104 Recce Sortie‘71 MiG-21 vs. F-104
10 Taiwan Straits - 1967 F-104A ROCAF F-104 Fleet F-104G "4421" China13 January 19674 ROCAF F-104G vs. 8 PLAAF* MIG-19Losses: 1 Zipper on RTB vs. 2 MIGs shot downQUEMOY(AKA: KINMEN)Taiwan* PLAAF - People's Liberation Army Air ForceF-104AROCAF F-104 Fleet1967 Taiwan Strait ConflictOn 13 January 1967, four Republic of China (Taiwan) Air Force F-104G aircraft engaged a formation of 8 MIG-19s of the People's Liberation army Air Force over the disputed island of Quemoy. Major Shih-Lin Hu and Captain Bei-Puo Shin each shot down one MIG019. This marked the first F-104 victory in the world. One F-104 did not return to base and its pilot was claimed as MIA.Background:Republic of China Air Force F-104sThe ROCAF was the second Air Force to convert to the F-104 Starfighter, just after the USAF. Indeed, the F-104 is the longest serving combat aircraft in the ROCAF history. Throughout almost forty years, the ROCAF operated several models of the F-104, having acquired all of them, new and used ones, under the code name Project “Ali Shan” (Ali Mountain).New delivered aircraft: F-104G from Lockheed: 42During 1963 to 1965, under Projects “Ali Shan No.2, Ali Shan No.4, and Ali Shan No.5”, 3 Wing received 69 F-104G and 9 TF-104G to equip 7th Squadron, 8th Squadron and 28th Squadron. After 10 years of service, the survivors were regrouped into two squadrons the 7th Squadron and 28th Squadron. 8th TFS disbanded In August th Squadron (SMS) received RF-104G under Project “Ali Shan No.3”.Used aircraft: F-104A ex USAF: Total 44The F-104A has played a prominent role within the Taiwanese Air Force. In total 44 F-104A Starfighters have been used by the Taiwanese Air Force. The F-104A has served within the Taiwanese Air Force in 2 episodes.First episodeAfter the Taiwanese AF expressed their interest in the F-104 coded as a true interceptor to answer the Chinese mainland threat they managed to get coded aside some five F-104B aircraft also 22 F-104A Starfighters from the USAF in 1960 under Project “Ali Shan No.1”.All these aircraft were handed over to the CCK (Ching Chuan Kang) based 8th TFS operating under 3 TFW (3 Air Group). The aircraft, all ex-USAF ADC, received serials from 4101 till 4222.First batch of two F-104Bs arrived in Taiwan on May 17, 1960 and officially delivered to 8th Squadron of 3 Wing at CCK AB.Reception ceremony of the F-104 in CCK AB was on May 26, Only two F-104B, coded 4101 and 4102 were there.The aircraft have served the Taiwanese Air Force until 1966 when all surviving Starfighters (in total six F-104A's have been lost in accidents) were transferred back to the USA after being replaced by the more the modern F-104G version.Survivors of these F-104A/B were shipped from the 3 Wing back to USA and transferred to Pakistan and Jordan in 1967.Second episodeTo fill up the gap within the interception capacity in 1970, Taiwan decided to order again a number of F-104A and B fighter aircraft from the Americans. All (again 22) F-104 had been fully modified to the latest standards including a more powerful GE J79-19 engine and received a Taiwanese camouflage pattern. All 22 aircraft were delivered to the Hsinchu based 41st TFS operating under 2 TFW (11 Air Group).In 1974 the surviving aircraft were transferred to the CCK based 8th TFS of 3 TFW (3 Air Group) and so, the career of the F-104A once started but also ended with the 8th TFS at CCK AB. Mid 80s the aircraft were painted light grey while receiving IRAN (Inspect Repair as Necessary). The F-104A operations ended officially on March 3, 1988 with a big ceremony surrounding aircraft "4255" at CCK AFB.F-104B ex USAF: 8Since 1960 eight F-104B and six F-104D Starfighters have been used by the Taiwanese Air Force of which the remaining aircraft flew their operational missions well into the eighties. lt all started in 1960 when the 8th TFS of the 3rd TFW (3 Air Group) received five F-104B two-seat Starfighters coded as training aircraft together with the received 22 single seat F-104A Starfighters.This project was called “Ali Mountain No.1”. The Starfighters stayed in use until 1966 when 3 surviving F-104B were given back to the USAF after being replaced by the more modern TF-104G version.Two F-104B had been lost in accidents during the 7 years of operation at CCK AB.To fill up the gap within the interception capacity in 1970, Taiwan decided to ask again for a number of F-104A interceptors. Under project “Ali Mountain No.6”, with these F-104A's also two F-104B training aircraft were received.When Taiwan lost one of these two F-104B aircraft they received a replacement aircraft in All aircraft stayed in service until their retirement in The aircraft have operated at Hsinchu based 41st TFS under 2nd TFW (11 Air Group) until 1974 when they moved together with all remaining F-104A aircraft to the 8th TFS at CCK, under the 3rd TFW (3 Air Group).[All these 2nd batch aircraft had the more powerful GE J79-19 engine which was part of the USAF Cuban crisis plan to improve the F-104A/B interceptor capability in late 60s.] F-104D ex USAF: 6In 1975 Taiwan received, via project “Ali Mountain No.7”, six F-104D aircraft to increase their training capacity.These D trainers have been used until their official retire ceremony on November 15th, 1988 and only have been operated by the CCK based 8th TFS under the 3rd TFW (3 Air Group).Both second batch F-104B and the F-104D received the traditional 1970s Taiwanese camouflage scheme on arrival, which was changed to light grey mid 80s while receiving IRAN (Inspect and Repair coded as Necessary).Given information is based on best available references, any proven correction is welcome!compiled by:Hubert PeitzmeierGary BinnieHarry PrinsClarence FuReferences:world wide webInternational F104 Society "Zipper" magazines 56 and 57916 Starfighter bookROCAF book by Clarence FuBowman bookF-40 booksupdated: April 18, 2011F-104G "4421"F-104G "4371"F-104Gs in Sea Camo
11 Starfighter Operations – Luke AFB, AZ – ’67-’69 1964 – 1983 (19 Years)1,868 Pilots trained235,000 flying hrs.The last use of the Starfighter in US markings was training German pilots for the Luftwaffe, with a wing of TF-104Gs and F-104Gs based at Luke Air Force Base, Arizona. Although operated in USAF markings, these aircraft (which included German-built aircraft) were owned by Germany. They continued in use until 1983.
12 Starfighter Operations – Memmingen AB, GE – ’69-’71
14 Starfighter Operations – Da Nang, Viet Nam – ’65 April November 19652,937 combat sortiesUSAF Tactical Air Command The subsequent F-104C entered service with Tactical Air Command as a multi-role fighter and fighter-bomber. The 479th Tactical Fighter Wing at George AFB, California, was the first unit to equip with the type in September Although not an optimum platform for the theatre, the F-104 did see limited service in the Vietnam War. Again, in 1967, these TAC aircraft were transferred to the Air National Guard.During the Vietnam War commencing with the Operation Rolling Thunder campaign, the Starfighter was used both in the air-superiority role and in the air support mission; although it saw little aerial combat and scored no air-to-air kills, Starfighters were successful in deterring MiG interceptors. Starfighter squadrons made two deployments to Vietnam, the first being from April 1965 to November 1965, flying 2,937 combat sorties. During that first deployment, two Starfighters were shot down by ground fire. One was shot down by a Chinese MiG-19 (Shenyang J-6) when the F-104 strayed over the border, and two F-104s were lost to a mid-air collision associated with that air-to-air battle. The 476th Tactical Fighter Squadron deployed to Vietnam in April 1965 through July 1965, losing one Starfighter; and the 436th Tactical Fighter Squadron deployed to Vietnam in July 1965 through October 1965, losing four.
15 Starfighter Operations – Udorn RTAFB – ’66-’67 In April of 1965, a single squadron of the 479th TFW deployed with their F-104Cs to Da Nang Air Base in South Vietnam. Their job was to fly MiG combat air patrol (MiGCAP) missions to protect American fighter bombers against attack by North Vietnamese fighters. They flew these missions armed with their single M61A1 20-mm cannon and four AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles. Unfortunately, the range of the F-104C was too short to make it a useful escort fighter, a fact which the North was soon to discover. All they had to do was wait for the F-104s to turn back before launching their own fighters in safety.The 479th had a bad day on September 20, 1965, when F-104C pilot Major Philip E. Smith was shot down over Hainan Island by a pair of Chinese MiG-19s (F-6s). His navigation system had failed while he was on MiGCAP over the Gulf of Tonkin and he had gotten lost. He ejected and was taken prisoner. While the rest of the squadron was out looking for Major Smith, two other F-104s had a midair collision while returning to their base and both their pilots were killed. A week later, another F-104C was shot down by enemy AAA, and its pilot was killed.After these four losses, the remnants of the 479th were rotated back to George AFB. However, a new contingent of F-104Cs returned to Vietnam in May of This time, all four squadrons of the 479th TFS were involved and were assigned to the Udorn base in Thailand. These F-104Cs were soon involved in airstrikes against targets in both South and North Vietnam, exchanging its role of air superiority for that of ground attack. The Starfighter took part in *Operation Bolo*, which was a successful attempt to lure North Vietnamese fighters into combat. However, the F-104s failed to engage whereas F-4 Phantoms scored heavily.The F-104C was not very well suited for the ground attack role, having a relatively low range and being incapable of carrying an adequately large offensive load. As a result, the Air Force decided to replace these F-104Cs by more efficient McDonnell F-4D Phantoms starting in July of The 479th was then rotated back to George AFB for the last time.I don't believe that the F-104C ever destroyed a single enemy fighter during its tour of duty in Southeast Asia. In addition to the MiG loss over Hainan, two F-104s fell to SAMs, six to AAA and six were lost to non-combat causes.Following the withdrawal of the F-104C from Southeast Asia in 1967, surviving F-104Cs were transferred to the 198th TFS of the Puerto Rico Air National Guard. The F-104Cs replaced that unit's elderly F-86H Sabre fighter-bombers. This ANG unit operated the Starfighter until it converted to LTV A-7Ds in July of USAF Tactical Air Command The subsequent F-104C entered service with Tactical Air Command as a multi-role fighter and fighter-bomber. The 479th Tactical Fighter Wing at George AFB, California, was the first unit to equip with the type in September Although not an optimum platform for the theatre, the F-104 did see limited service in the Vietnam War. Again, in 1967, these TAC aircraft were transferred to the Air National Guard.During the Vietnam War commencing with the Operation Rolling Thunder campaign, the Starfighter was used both in the air-superiority role and in the air support mission; although it saw little aerial combat and scored no air-to-air kills, Starfighters were successful in deterring MiG interceptors. Starfighter squadrons made two deployments to Vietnam, the first being from April 1965 to November 1965, flying 2,937 combat sorties. During that first deployment, two Starfighters were shot down by ground fire. One was shot down by a Chinese MiG-19 (Shenyang J-6) when the F-104 strayed over the border, and two F-104s were lost to a mid-air collision associated with that air-to-air battle. The 476th Tactical Fighter Squadron deployed to Vietnam in April 1965 through July 1965, losing one Starfighter; and the 436th Tactical Fighter Squadron deployed to Vietnam in July 1965 through October 1965, losing four.
16 Starfighter Warriors – Udorn RTAFB – ‘66 F-104C Starfighters At Udorn RTAFB, ThailandMiG threat to USAF aircraft over North Vietnam began to emerge, with the supersonic MiG-21 beginning to appear. In response, a contingent of Lockheed F-104C Starfighters from the 476th Tactical Fighter Squadron, based at George AFB, California were deployed to Udorn, arriving on 6 June 1966, and being assigned to the 8th TFW. An additional 12 F-104Cs joined the 8th TFW on July 22.The F-104s were initially involved in escort missions in support of Republic F-105D Thunderchief strike aircraft hitting targets in North Vietnam. They were also involved in escorts of EF-105F Wild Weasel. One of the problems was that the F-104Cs were not initially equipped with electronic countermeasures (ECM) gear, and had to rely on F-105s for warnings of lock-ons from enemy radar facilities. However, the mere presence of these F-104Cs managed to keep enemy MiGs away from the strike packages.On 1 August, two F-104Cs were lost to enemy Surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) in a single day, and it was concluded that it was too dangerous to operate the F-104C in support of Wild Weasel missions, especially when they were not equipped with ECM gear. It was decided to withdraw the F-104C from support of strike missions over North Vietnam, unless and until the MiG threat reappeared. By late August, these F-104Cs were involved in air strikes against targets in both Laos and South Vietnam, exchanging its role of air superiority for that of ground attack. However, losses were heavy, with three F-104s being downed by ground fire and SAMs in the next couple of months. The F-104C was not very well suited for the ground attack role, being incapable of carrying an adequately large offensive load. In addition, it could not carry out operations in bad weather and could not sustain a lot of battle damage.By late 1966, all F-104s in Southeast Asia had received APR-25/26 ECM gear and once again began flying escort missions over North Vietnam. The Starfighter took part in Operation Bolo on 2 January 1967, which was a successful attempt to lure North Vietnamese fighters into combat. However, the F-104s were not used to actively entice and engage MiGs, but were used instead to protect the egressing F-4 Phantom II force. The F-4 Phantoms scored heavily during this engagement.The Air Force decided to replace these F-104Cs by more efficient McDonnell F-4D Phantoms starting in July The 4th TFS from Eglin AFB equipped with F-4Ds deployed to Ubon, and were redesignated as the 435th TFS. The F-104Cs rotated back to the states and where sent to the Puerto Rican Air National Guard
17 Starfighter Missions in Viet Nam Close Air Support (CAS)Close Escort - High Value AssetsMIG Combat Air Patrol (MIGCAP)Strike Force Escort
19 Close Air Support (CAS) FRAG Order - support A-1Es & Lima Sites – interdict suppliesCommand & Control – Brigham (radar) following to FAC.Varying OrdnanceTwo 750 lb. General PurposeNapalm2.75” Rockets725 Rounds of 20 mm.ResCAPs – Post-deliveries available to keep MIGs from rescue operationsUdorn RTAFBTakhli RTAFBUbon RTAFBKorat RTAFB
20 but first....High-Speed Considerations Air-to-Air Combatbut first....High-Speed Considerations
21 TerminologyCorner Speed – the speed at which you fly the ‘Quickest – Tightest’ turnSlowest speed at which the aircraft can pull the max allowable G.Starfighter => 450 KIAS / 7.33 GsFluid Two – Two fighters spread ’ feet laterally & ’ vertically.Slashing Attacks – High deflection Cannon shots with minimum risk of being shot down
22 VID + High-Speed Deflection Shot – M-61 20mm Cannon “Fluid Two” Formation AttackClose at Mach 1.2 for the Visual IDSlow / Maneuver for High Deflection ShotMin of 450 KIAS
23 High Energy Straight-lines and Hooks – Vertical Maneuvering High Deflection Gun ShotMin of 450 KIASQuick Reversal & Accelerate & SeparateW/ Turning Room - Vertical Pitch-Back Minimum of Corner Speed – 450 KIASAccelerate to Mach 1.2Reattack with missiles or CannonAccelerate to Mach 1.2 & separate from the Fight
24 Escort Airborne Command & Control Center (EC-121D) Mission: Deter MIGS from ABCCC & Assist Strike Force AssetsMIG Warnings by Ethan Alpha, Bravo or CharlieChallenging Profiles – Speeds, Equipment & the EnvironmentsMultiple refuelingsUdorn RTAFBUbon RTAFBTakhli RTAFBKorat RTAFBBrownAnchorRedEthan AlphaEthan Bravo/CharlieCollege Eye
25 MiG Combat Air Patrol (CAP) FRAG Order coordinated with the USNCommand & Control – Ethan Alpha, Bravo or Charlie (EC-121) or Destroyer (Red Crown)‘Hot’ vectors to Deter & Assist Other SortiesVisual ROEMulti-Bogie EnvironmentFluid Two (Two-Ship) tacticsMultiple KC-135 Air-Air Refuelings -> Long missionsResCAPs – Deter MIGs from rescue operationsBrownAnchorRedAnchorUdorn RTAFBTakhli RTAFBUbon RTAFBKorat RTAFB
26 Starfighter MiG CAP Engagement – Fall of ’66 Red CrownF-104 CAPRed Anchor
27 Starfighter MiG CAP Engagement – Fall of ’66 Red CrownF-104 CAPRed Anchor
28 Starfighter MiG CAP Engagement – Fall of ’66 Red CrownF-104 CAPRed Anchor
29 Strike Force Escort – F-105s & F-4s over North Viet Nam Udorn RTAFBUbon RTAFBTakhli RTAFBKorat RTAFBCoordinated FRAG Orders with the USNPre- and Post-Strike refuelingRendezvous on the TankerStrike Integration - 40 fighter-bombersEscort to the Black / Delay turn /Pick-Up off the target / Cover EgressRescue CAPs – keep MIGs away from rescue operationsOperation Bolo – 1/2/67 – Ruse tactics w/ Jamming package7 MiG-21s confirmed destroyed, 2 MiG-21s probablyEthan Bravo/CharlieGreenAnchorRedAnchorBrownAnchor
30 Strike Force Escort Tactics – F-105s over North Viet Nam Ethan Bravo/CharlieRed Anchor
31 Strike Force Escort Tactics – F-105s over North Viet Nam Ethan Bravo/CharlieRed Anchor
32 Strike Force Escort Tactics – F-105s over North Viet Nam Ethan Bravo/CharlieRed Anchor
33 Summary The Starfighter was a very effective system. It served our Nation & our Allies well.It identified requirements for future air-air systems.
34 Starfighter Operations around the World Questions??Tom Mahan5/18/12
36 Starfighter Specifications (F-104G) Propulsion General Electric / MTU J79-GE-11A / J79-J1KPower ,678 (dry) / 15,939 (AB) lbfSpeed kts (1522 mph) @ 40,000 ft.Service Ceiling 50,000 ftRange NM (746 mi.)Empty Weight 13,995 lbsMax. Takeoff Weight 29,762 lbsWing Span (24,7) ftWing Area ft²Length ft.Height ft.Gun: M-61 Vulcan cannon six-barrel, 725 rds 4-6 K/minArmament: 4K lbs – under the wings , two AIM-9 Sidewinders on tips.Some versions – two AIM-9s on external pylon or fuselage.Users United States, Belgium, Canada, Republic of China, Denmark,Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Spain & TurkeyFirst Flight 4/03/54Initial Operational Capability 2/20/58Production Range (43 years)Total Production 2576Last Fleet Retired (Italy) (45 years)Unit cost US$ 1.42 mVariants F-104A, F-104B, F-104C, F-104D, F-104DJ, F-104F,F-104G, RF-104G, TF-104G, F-104J, F-104S, F-104S-ASA,F-104S-ASA/M, CF-104 and CF-104D
37 Starfighter Effectiveness – Air-to-Air Deterrence Berlin Crisis – ‘6111/61 – 6/62 – 60 A-Models operated in theater supporting President Kennedy’s counter to the Soviet Union’s attempt to cut off Berlin. Quick reactions with Mach 2 runs along the border.Pakistan – War of ‘659/3/65 – Three days before the ‘65 war between India & Pakistan started, a disoriented Gnat was intimidated by a PAF Starfighter. The Gnat pilot lowered his gear, landed nearby, was escorted to the Officer’s Mess and became the first POW of the war – House arrest in the BOQ.9/6/65 – (1st day of the war) Four Mysteres were bombing and rocketing a stationary train in Pakistan. Two PAF Starfighters vectored to attack. The lead Starfighter blew through the attack group, scattered them and caused them to abort back to India. Lead downed one and damaged another with AIM-9Bs.Viet Nam – Da Nang - ’65 & Udorn – ’65-’674/19//65 – 11/21/65 – 479th F-104Cs sent to Da Nang to counter the subsonic Mig threat. Migs quit flying and the Starfighters turned to Air-to-Ground sorties before redeploying to CONUS.6/6/66 – 7/19/67 – 479th F-104Cs sent back to Udorn RTAFB to help F-4Cs counter the new MiG-21 threat. Migs started avoiding direct attacks and flew mostly when USAF forces were not in the area. Several engagements were broken off by the MiGs when the Starfighters or F-4Cs were vectored into the fight. Starfighters flew Air-to-Ground missions between Mig CAPs and Strike Force escorts.Taiwan Straits Conflict – ’671/13/67 – Four Republic of China (Taiwan) Air Force F-104G aircraft engaged a formation of 12 MiG-19s of the People’s Liberation Army Air Force over the disputed island of Kinmen. ROCAF pilots downed two MiG-19s and broke up the air defense of the island.
38 Evolved Starfighter Force Structure CONUS US Air Defense Gap Filler - 177Day, quick interceptions of Soviet BombersGap-filler for the F-102 / F-106Adapted to meet early defense capabilities of Jordan and PakistanWorld-Wide Fighter Force – 2576 totalMulti-role, with NATO nuclear capabilitiesModernized by the Italians – state-of-the-art sensors & ordnanceDeterrence & multi-mission national needs of 15 nationsStarfighter Force met the Deterrence & Multi-mission National Defense Needs of 15 nations2
39 Starfighter Operations – Memmingen AB, GE – ’69-’71
40 Starfighter Operations – Memmingen AB, GE – ’69-’71
41 Month’s Total Combat – 506 Sorties Starfighter “100 Hour Club” – Udorn – December ’66Month’s Total Combat – 506 Sorties
44 Starfighter Production Summary – 2575 Total TypeLockheedMulti-nationalCanadairFiatFokkerMBBMesserschmittMitsubishiSABCATotalXF-1042YF-104A17F-104A153F-104B26F-104C77F-104D21F-104DJ20CF-104200CF-104D38F-104F30F-104G139140164231502101881122RF-104G4035119194TF-104G (583C to F)17227199TF-104G (583G and H)F-104J3207F-104S245Total by manufacturer738483404443502575Note: Production summary, data taken from Bowman, Lockheed F-104 Starfighter.