5Latent Trait TheoryMaster Trait: Personal attributes may be present at birth or established early in life, and it remains stable over time, i.e., damaged or impulsive personality, defective intelligence, genetic abnormalities, and environmental influences on brain functions such as drugs, chemicals, and injuries.Regardless of gender, those who maintain one of these suspect traits may be at risk to crime and criminal careers.Propensity to commit crime is stable, criminal opportunities fluctuate over time, maturity brings less opportunity.Early social control and proper parenting can reduce criminal propensity.
6Latent Trait TheoriesThe General Theory of Crime: Gottfredson and HirschiThe Differential Coercion Theory: ColvinThe Control Balance Theory: Tittle
7Latent Trait Theories: General Theory Major PremiseCrime and criminality are separate concepts. People choose to commit crime when they lack self-control. People lacking in self-control will seize criminal opportunities.
10GTC: Self–Control as a Stabilizing Force The propensity to commit crime remainsstable throughout a person’s life.Change in the frequency of criminal activityis purely a function of changein criminal opportunity.
11The General Theory of Crime Gottfredson and Hirschi Impulsive personalityLow self-controldue to inadequatechild-rearingpractices.Crime and devianceCriminalOpportunityWeakening ofsocial bonds
12Analyzing the General Theory of Crime: Benefits Helps explain why some people who lack self-control can escape criminality, and conversely, why some people who have self-control might not escape criminalityIntegrating criminal propensity and criminal opportunity can explain why some children enter into chronic offending while others living in similar environments are able to resist criminal activity.
13Criticisms of the General Theory of Crime Fails to address individual and ecological patterns in crime ratesAlthough male and female crime rates differ, there is little evidence that males are more impulsive than females; the similar argument applies to minorities.It assumes propensity does not change; opportunities change.Research only supports a modest relationship between self-control as a causal factor in criminality over different forms of deviant behaviorEvidence shows that criminals in other countries do not lack self-control, indicating that the theory may be culturally limited.
14Question Do you think the General Theory of Crime can explain either white collar crimeororganized crime?
15Differential Coercion Theory: Colvin Low self-control is produced by experiences a person has with destructive social forces called coercion.Interpersonal coercion or direct coercion: Use or threat of force and intimidation from parents, peers, and significant others.Impersonal coercion: Coercion beyond individual control; i.e., economic and social pressure caused by unemployment, poverty, and competition.Prosocial Behavior: Low coercion, high self-esteem, strong moral and social bond.
16what is coercive ideation? QuestionAccording to Colvin,what is coercive ideation?
18Control-Balance Theory: Tittle The amount ofcontrol one can exercise over others – excessive control can lead to:ExploitationPlunderDecadenceThe amount ofcontrol one is subjectto by others – deficitcontrol can lead to:PredationDefianceSubmissionConformity results when these two elements are in balance: control imbalances producedeviant and criminal behaviors
20Life Course TraitsCriminality is influenced by individual characteristics, social experiences, economic and environmental factors.People change over the life course.Criminal involvement changes over time as a result of life transitions.A variety of pathways to crime.
21Questions What is the problem behavior syndrome (PBS)? To a life course theorist, what are pathways to crime?How does Age of Onset relate to theContinuity of Crime?Who are “life course persisters?”
23Life Course TheoriesSocial Development Model (SDM): Weis, Catalano, and Hawkins.Theory of Delinquent Development: FarringtonInteractional Theory: ThornberryAge-Graded Theory: Sampson and LaubGeneral Theory of Crime and Delinquency: Agnew
24Questions That Are Important to Life-course Theorists Why people begin committing antisocial acts?Why do some stop or desist, while others continue or persist?Why do some escalate the severity of their criminality - that is, go from shoplifting to drug dealing to armed robbery- while others de-escalate and commit less serious crime as they mature?If some terminate their criminal activity, what, if anything, causes them to begin again?Why do some criminals specialize in certain types of crime, while others are generalists engaging in a garden variety of antisocial behavior?
25Developmental Theories: Social Development Model STRENGTHSCombines elements of social structural, social control, and social learning theories. Accounts for variations in the crime rate.MAJOR PREMISEWeak social controls produce crime. A person’s place in the structure influences his or her bond to society.
26The Social Development Model of Antisocial Behavior
27Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential (ICAP) Theory Major PremisePeople with antisocial potential (AP) are at riskto commit anti-social acts.AP can be viewed as botha long-and short-term phenomenon.StrengthsIdentifies different types of criminal propensityand shows how they may influence behaviorin both the short and long term.
28Developmental Theory: Interactional Theory MAJOR PREMISE - Criminals go through lifestyle changes during their offending careers.STRENGTHS - Combines sociological and psychological theories.
29Interactional Theory of Delinquency: Thornberry Overview of theInteractional Theory of Delinquency: ThornberryBonding variablesAttachment to parentsCommitment to schoolBelief in conventional valuesSocial classRaceSexNeighborhood characteristicsDelinquentbehaviorLearning variablesAssociation with delinquent peersFormation of delinquent values
30Developmental Theory: Age-graded Theory: Sampson and Laub STRENGTHSShows how crime is a developmental process that shifts in direction over the life course.CRIMINAL CAREER TRAJECTORIES CAN BE REVERSED.MAJOR PREMISEAs people mature, the factors that influence their propensity to commit crime change. In childhood, family factors are critical; in adulthood, marital and job factors are key.