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Barba Mater Lessons from history on university structures Riga, April, 2012 By Harry Fekkers Maastricht University.

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Presentation on theme: "Barba Mater Lessons from history on university structures Riga, April, 2012 By Harry Fekkers Maastricht University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Barba Mater Lessons from history on university structures Riga, April, 2012 By Harry Fekkers Maastricht University

2 Contents University structures; e.g. Baltic Universities University structures; e.g. Baltic Universities Theory: Mintzberg Theory: Mintzberg The first universities The first universities Universities during enlightenment Universities during enlightenment The Humboldtian university The Humboldtian university Twentieth Century Twentieth Century Now and the future Now and the future

3 Baltic Universities

4 Uni of Tartu Vilnius Technical University Uni of Latvia Estonian Uni Of Life Sciences Talinn Uni Of Technology Yanka Kupala Grodno Talinn UniKlaipeda Uni Latvia Uni Of Agricult. Riga Uni Of Technology

5 Theory Framework to interpret facts and developments Framework to interpret facts and developments Mintzberg (Structuring in fives, M. On Management): 6 elements of structure Mintzberg (Structuring in fives, M. On Management): 6 elements of structure

6 Coordination in organisations Mutual adjustment, which achieves coordination by the simple process of informal communication (as between two operating employees) Mutual adjustment, which achieves coordination by the simple process of informal communication (as between two operating employees) Direct supervision, is achieved by having one person issue orders or instructions to several others whose work interrelates (as when a boss tells others what is to be done, one step at a time) Direct supervision, is achieved by having one person issue orders or instructions to several others whose work interrelates (as when a boss tells others what is to be done, one step at a time) Standardization of work processes, which achieves coordination by specifying the work processes of people carrying out interrelated tasks (those standards usually being developed in the technostructure to be carried out in the operating core, as in the case of the work instructions that come out of time-and-motion studies) Standardization of work processes, which achieves coordination by specifying the work processes of people carrying out interrelated tasks (those standards usually being developed in the technostructure to be carried out in the operating core, as in the case of the work instructions that come out of time-and-motion studies) Standardization of outputs, which achieves coordination by specifying the results of different work (again usually developed in the technostructure, as in a financial plan that specifies subunit performance targets or specifications that outline the dimensions of a product to be produced) Standardization of outputs, which achieves coordination by specifying the results of different work (again usually developed in the technostructure, as in a financial plan that specifies subunit performance targets or specifications that outline the dimensions of a product to be produced) Standardization of skills (as well as knowledge), in which different work is coordinated by virtue of the related training the workers have received (as in medical specialists - say a surgeon and an anesthetist in an operating room –responding almost automatically to each others standardized procedures) Standardization of skills (as well as knowledge), in which different work is coordinated by virtue of the related training the workers have received (as in medical specialists - say a surgeon and an anesthetist in an operating room –responding almost automatically to each others standardized procedures) Standardization of norms, in which it is the norms infusing the work that are controlled, usually for the entire organization, so that everyone functions according to the same set of beliefs (as in a religious order) Standardization of norms, in which it is the norms infusing the work that are controlled, usually for the entire organization, so that everyone functions according to the same set of beliefs (as in a religious order)

7 The first Universities Bologna, Paris, Salerno and many more. Bologna, Paris, Salerno and many more. In 1400 there were some 100 universities in Europe In 1400 there were some 100 universities in Europe Student bodies Student bodies Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in 1155: Authentica Habita Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in 1155: Authentica Habita Structure: pioneering, entrepreneurial Structure: pioneering, entrepreneurial

8 First universities

9 Scientific Revolution XV – XVII century, Enlightenment XV – XVII century, Enlightenment Many discoveries/theories outside the university Many discoveries/theories outside the university University mainly teaching University mainly teaching Research: experiment, new instruments. Technology: Leonardo, microscope, telescope. Development of Mathematics Research: experiment, new instruments. Technology: Leonardo, microscope, telescope. Development of Mathematics Breakthroughs: Descartes, Brahe, Galileo, Newton Breakthroughs: Descartes, Brahe, Galileo, Newton

10 Universities of Enlightenment

11 The von Humboldt University Integration of research and teaching Integration of research and teaching Academic freedom Academic freedom Elitist Elitist Not only technology and physics: humaniora and arts Not only technology and physics: humaniora and arts Priviliges, research facilities Priviliges, research facilities

12 Humboldtian

13 State Universities IX-XX National needs National needs Academic – professional bureaucracy Academic – professional bureaucracy Demographic democracy Demographic democracy Specialisation, pigeon holes Specialisation, pigeon holes Structure hierarchical but, how do you manage wild cats Structure hierarchical but, how do you manage wild cats Committees Committees

14 The State Universities

15 Innovation in XXI Scientific breakthoughs: ICT, life sciences Scientific breakthoughs: ICT, life sciences Large scale research Large scale research Knowledge as economic driver Knowledge as economic driver Large proportion of population needs higher education Large proportion of population needs higher education Competition, the Perfect Storm Competition, the Perfect Storm State funding cannot keep pace with needs State funding cannot keep pace with needs

16 The Innovative University

17 Youngest member of ECIU ECIU = European Consortium of Innovative Universities ECIU = European Consortium of Innovative Universities 11 members, Swinburne became member in members, Swinburne became member in 2003 Swimburne University of Technology

18 Structure of Swimburne Faculties only one branch of activity. Serve as sources. Faculties only one branch of activity. Serve as sources. Main structure geared towards markets Main structure geared towards markets

19 Overview

20 Context of decision making Academic Government Market (Burton Clark, 1988, 2003 ) Strengthened steering core Enhanced development periphery Diversified funding base Stimulated academic heartland Entrepreneurial belief/spirit

21 Return of a Duplex Ordo?

22 Litterature Henry Mintzberg (McGill, Canada): Henry Mintzberg (McGill, Canada): Structure in 5s: designing effective organisations, 1983, Prentice Hal Structure in 5s: designing effective organisations, 1983, Prentice Hal Mintzberg on Management, 1989, MacMillan, New York Mintzberg on Management, 1989, MacMillan, New York Hilde de Ridder-Symoens & Walter Rüegg (editors): Hilde de Ridder-Symoens & Walter Rüegg (editors): A History of the University in Europe, Vol. I (Middle Ages), Vol. II ( ), Vol. III ( ), Vol. IV (1945- present, forthcoming), 1996, Cambrige University Press A History of the University in Europe, Vol. I (Middle Ages), Vol. II ( ), Vol. III ( ), Vol. IV (1945- present, forthcoming), 1996, Cambrige University Press Paul F. Grendler: The Universities of the Italian Renaissance, 2004, John Hopkins University Press Paul F. Grendler: The Universities of the Italian Renaissance, 2004, John Hopkins University Press Gabriel Compayré: Abelard and the Origin and Early History of Universities, 1893, London, William Heineman Gabriel Compayré: Abelard and the Origin and Early History of Universities, 1893, London, William Heineman Burton R. Clark: Burton R. Clark: Creating Entrepreneurial Universities, 1998, Oxford: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Creating Entrepreneurial Universities, 1998, Oxford: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Sustaining Change in Universities: Continuities in Case Studies and Concepts, 2004, Open University Press Sustaining Change in Universities: Continuities in Case Studies and Concepts, 2004, Open University Press Michael Shattock: Managing Successful Universities, 2003, Open University Press Michael Shattock: Managing Successful Universities, 2003, Open University Press


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