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Dr. Jolly Holden Associate Professor, School of Education American InterContinental University Chairman Emeritus, United States Distance Learning Association.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Jolly Holden Associate Professor, School of Education American InterContinental University Chairman Emeritus, United States Distance Learning Association."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Jolly Holden Associate Professor, School of Education American InterContinental University Chairman Emeritus, United States Distance Learning Association Developing Blended Learning: Challenges & Implications

2 Introduction Blended learning is more than just combining an online component to the traditional classroom…it is a systematic process of selecting the most appropriate media for a specific learning intervention based upon the learning objectives. With that said, given the plethora of instructional media available to the instructional designer today, combined with the emergence of web-based collaborative tools, there is a renewed focus on integrating web 2.0 tools and other instructional media in meeting today’s learning challenges. “Blended learning represents a [fundamental] shift in instructional strategy” North American Council for Online Learning, Blended Learning: The Convergence of Online and Face-to-Face Education, 2008

3 As instructional media continues to evolve, propelled by advances in technology and fueled by the need to increase learning opportunities, the evolution and advancements of instructional media will continue to accelerate as well. As a result, blended learning will become an integral component in developing a comprehensive learning strategy. The Emergence of Blended Learning “The term blended learning has been redefined, from a combination of instructor and Web-based training to a blend of many types of interactive content” Josh Bersin, “Today’s High-Impact Learning Organization”, Chief Learning Officer Magazine, Aug, 2008

4 Why Blended Learning: The Challenge Driven by the demand to increase learning opportunities and reduce costs without impacting instructional integrity, educators and trainers are continually challenged in searching for the for right mix of instructional media. Taking into consideration all of the instructional technologies available today, selecting the right mix of live, virtual, and constructive courseware delivery methods in meeting the needs of our learners can be a challenging and daunting task. Consequently, this presentation address these two basic questions: Q1: What is the most appropriate mix of instructional media, and… Q2: What are the variables to consider when selecting the most appropriate media?

5 Web 3.0: Virtual Learning Environments Correspondence (1883-present) Electronic-assisted Learning (circa 1990-present) T echnology-enabled (circa 1950s-1990s e-learning (circa 1995-present) Computer-mediated Learning (circa 1970-present) Computer-based Training (CBT) We-based Training Online Learning Satellite e-learning/ITV Video Conferencing Video tape/DVD/ ipods Electronic whiteboards The Family Tree of Instructional Media: From the Past to Tomorrow E-learning 2.0: Portability/Wireless PDAs Learning Environments Smart- phones Immersive Simulation Virtual Worlds Change is inevitable, and tomorrow will bring newer and better technologies, accompanied by a new set of challenges, but the goal is the same: Optimize the technology without sacrificing instructional quality. In the end, incorporating sound instructional design principles will provide for a solid foundation to ensure learning outcomes are attained. “ In this global, networked world, several technologies including search engines, blogs, podcasts, Web 2.0 applications and virtual worlds such as Second Life will be used for learning.” Ed Hoff, CLO IBM, Learning in the 21 st Century : A Brave New World, CLO Magazine, April, 2008 “Distance learning will evolve from basic enrollment in computer and web-based courses to virtual learning environments that support online collaboration and classes taught by both live and virtual instructors.” Air Force White Paper,. On Learning: The Future of Air Force Education and Training (2008) Social Media

6 Blended learning allows the instructional designer the opportunity to leverage the strengths of instructional media with the efficacy of the instructional components to ensure the instructional goal is attained. For a blended learning solution to be successful, it is imperative a thorough media analysis and needs assessment is conducted while addressing the fundamental components of the instructional systems design process. Rules of Engagement for Blended Learning “Migrating to blended learning formats requires instructional design analysis that integrates with the technologies that will be utilized to deliver it. ” The e-Learning Developers Journal (2005)

7 Delivery media does not affect the content, but affects how you design the content Asynchronous media is not adaptive to dynamic content Synchronous media can accommodate dynamic content Basic Blended Learning Concepts Blended learning integrates multiple media with the appropriate instructional strategies, and can also include Collaborative tools used to facilitate the transfer of learning (discussion boards) Adaptive tools used for dynamic content/increased interaction (wikis & blogs) - Note: Web 2.0 tools and social media are more commonly used to support “informal learning” Media attributes are important in that they may affect your choice of instructional strategies

8 “In experimental and quasi-experimental studies contrasting blends of online and face-to-face instruction with conventional face-to-face classes, blended instruction has been more effective, providing a rationale for the effort required to design and implement blended approaches.” Recent Blended Learning Research Conclusions Blended and purely online learning conditions implemented within a single study generally result in similar student learning outcomes Blended conditions often included additional learning time and instructional elements not received by students in control conditions Positive effects associated with blended learning should not be attributed to the media, which is consistent with the position the medium is simply a carrier of content and unlikely to affect learning U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies, Washington, D.C., Retrieved from

9 This presentation will provide some background on blended learning and instructional media, as well as introducing variables to consider when developing a blended learning strategy. synchronicityelasticity Additionally, this presentation will introduce the concepts of synchronicity (integration of learning environments) and elasticity (integration of instructional media with instructional strategies) to ensure the right mix is attained. Presentation objectives:  Define Blended Learning  Identify Instructional Media Selection Considerations  Discuss Instructional & Pedagogical Variables  Define Elasticity and Synchronicity  Market’s Acceptance of Blended Learning The Blended Learning Journey Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis Navigation Bar

10 Although the application of blended learning has been around for decades, there is no universally accepted definition. While it appears the term first appeared in the literature circa 1999, the following pages articulate several definitions that represent different perspectives in an attempt to define the term, but they all have one essential component in common...an integration of instructional media. The definitions offered in this presentation reflect different perspectives concerning the definition of blended learning: General Construct Educational Pragmatic Training Logical Instructional Design Blended Learning Definitions A rose by any other name is still a rose More definitions of blended learning available at: Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

11 A General Construct The delivery of instruction using multiple media* Includes the integration of instructional media into a traditional classroom or into a distance learning environment. Includes any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media. * Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach Blended Learning Definitions Note: This is applicable to any learning environment that combines multiple media to deliver content. Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

12 An Educational Perspective* Courses that integrate online with traditional face-to- face class activities in a planned pedagogically valuable manner; and…where a portion (institutionally defined) of face-to-face time is replaced by online activity. Source: Laster, S., G. Otte, A. G. Picciano and S. Sorg. Redefining blended learning. Presented at the 2005 Sloan-C Workshop on Blended Learning, Chicago, IL, April 18, Consequently, from an educational perspective, blended learning is primarily focused on integrating two separate paradigms…the traditional classroom [synchronous] environment and the asynchronous online environment. Traditional Classroom Online Note: Hybrid learning, vis-à-vis blended learning, is often used in higher education when the student has a choice between an online class and the traditional class…not necessarily the integration of the two. Blended Learning Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis Blended Learning Definitions

13 A Pragmatic Perspective Courses that are taught both in the classroom (face-to-face) and at a distance and that use a mix of different pedagogic strategies (Source: edutechwiki, 2006, Available at More specifically… To combine or mix modes of web-based technology (e.g., live virtual classroom, self-paced instruction, collaborative learning, streaming video, audio, and text) to accomplish an educational goal. To combine various pedagogical approaches (e.g., constructivism, behaviorism, cognitivism) to produce optimal learning outcomes with or with out instructional technology. To combine any form of instructional technology (e.g., videotape, CD-ROM, web- based training, film) with face-to-face instructor-led training. Source: Margaret Driscoll, n.d, retrieved Jan 5, 2007 from: Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis Blended Learning Definitions

14 A Training Perspective The use of multiple instructional delivery media to deliver one course or curriculum, such as a technical training course with pre-reading, asynchronous online knowledge acquisition, and/or synchronous lectures. Source: e-Learning Guild’s Research Report, Synchronous Learning Systems, June 2008 Synchronous and asynchronous media. For clarification, blended learning is also applied to a mix of online and face-to-face training, and more generally to approaches to course design and delivery that combine different modalities (e.g., self-paced Web-based training, followed by classroom instruction, accompanied by printed job aids, and supplemented by virtual classroom follow-up sessions). Source: e-Learning Guild Handbook on Synchronous e-Learning (2007) Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis Blended Learning Definitions

15 A Logical Perspective “A learning program where more than one delivery mode is being used with the objective of optimizing the learning outcome and cost of program delivery.” Achieving Success with Blended Learning, Harvi Singh and Chris Reed (2001). Available at: “ Collaborative online learning is now recognized as a component of a mature blended-learning strategy.” Bersin & Associates, Technology Update: Open Source e-Learning Systems, June 2007 Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis Blended Learning Definitions

16 An Instructional Design Perspective “Blended learning is nothing more [or less] than good instructional design.” Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis The difference between blended learning 60 years ago and today is the instructional designer has more of a selection of instructional media. However, the concept and application of instructional media into a blended learning solution is the same as it was 60 years ago… Attainment of the learning outcomes to improve human performance Blended Learning Definitions “ The Internet-is-going-to-eliminate-face-to-face-training paradigm has exploded and the term blended learning was coined by the e-learning protagonists as a way of admitting that classroom instruction is not going away. Jack Gordon, Editor-at-Large, T raining magazine, July 2005

17 Although synchronicity is dichotomous, per se, either synchronous or asynchronous, it does not mean they are mutually exclusive when considering a blended learning solution. If viewed as being on opposite ends of a continuum, the degree to which these two dichotomous environments can be integrated would result in a blending of synchronicity. Therefore, to attain the most optimum blend, one must consider the vehicle(s) that deliver the content, the [learning environment] in which the learning occurs, and the instructional objective(s) [which drive the development of the content and instructional strategies]. Consequently, blended learning can include any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media. Blended Learning SynchronousAsynchronous The Concept of Synchronicity Click here for note on Web 3.0 & Virtual Worldshere Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

18 Blended Learning Model Concept Map Depicted in this concept map is the blended learning model three main components and subcomponents. The degree of integration of each of the subcomponents is based upon evaluating specific attributes of each component, resulting in the most appropriate blend to ensure attainment of the instructional goal. Note: This model is based upon a set of related components, although evaluated separately, are viewed holistically, per se, each component’s specific contribution must be viewed as it relates to the sum total of all the parts… which results in a comprehensive blended learning solution. Complexity Instructional Strategies Instructional Objectives Content Rapidity of Change Multimedia (aural/visual) Interactivity Didactic Collaboration (P2P) Asynchronous Dialectic Collaboration (P2P) Synchronous Collaborative Tools Synchronicity Asynchronous Instructional Media Synchronous Instructional Media Symmetry Asymmetrical Media Symmetrical Media Distance Learning AsynchronousSynchronous Traditional Classroom Learning Environment Component Media Component Instructional Component Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

19 Derived from the blended learning concept map is the tri-dimensional blended learning module. A model can be a description of a system or phenomenon that accounts for its known or inferred properties and used for further study of its characteristics. Therefore, a blended learning model can be used as a guide in evaluating and integrating separate components that would result in an instructionally sound learning situation. Media component: Used to evaluate the most appropriate media to delivery the content Learning environment component: Evaluates the learning environment (synchronous/asynchronous) that supports the instructional objectives Instructional component: Used to select the most appropriate instructional strategies that support the learning objectives Media Component Learning Environment ComponentLearning Environment Component Instructional Component Blended Learning Model Components Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis Click on any of the model component links for detailed information for that specific component. Click here for a summary of each component.here

20 Media LearningEnvironment The power of blended learning is in its elasticity Instructional Concept of Elasticity in Blended Learning Depending upon the [cognitive] level of the learning objectives and the learning environment (synchronous vis-a-vis asynchronous), different combinations of instructional media and instructional strategies can support various levels of interactivity to attain the most appropriate "blend". As the blend changes, the model becomes "elastic", allowing the instructional designer to modify the blend to meet specific learning outcomes. Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

21 What is the right mix? There may be several “blended” solutions that can meet the instructional objectives, so consider the qualitative merits of all instructional media. The ultimate goal is to increase performance through the systematic evaluation of intra- dependent variables that would result in the most appropriate integration of media. With that said, any combination of instructional delivery medium, including the traditional classroom, can result in a blended learning solution, but the instructional efficacy of the solution is most dependent upon the instructional and learning environment components. Elasticity in Blended Learning Click here for another view of the blendhere Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

22 Survey from the Chief Learning Officer magazine Business Intelligence Board* The traditional classroom is still the primary delivery media (56%) but synchronous & asynchronous e-learning is increasing (24%), along with the use of m-learning (6%) * Source: Chief Learning Officer Magazine. (July, 2007). Blended Learning: Mixing Modalities. Available at: Survey of Chief Learning Officers (CLOs) Use of Blended Learning Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

23 The greatest change in the delivery mix will continue to come via the increased adoption of e-learning and the increased use of portable technologies. IBM’s perspective on blended learning and workforce mobility Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning (con’t) Did you know that…click hereclick here Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

24 “[There is] an important link between content type and delivery method and that student-instructor interaction receives strong consideration in determining which delivery methods get employed within an organization...” and “The value of student-to- instructor interaction remains a primary driver for both classroom-based ILT and synchronous e-learning….as well as student-to-student interaction.” CLO Magazine., July, 2007, pg Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning (con’t) Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

25 "It is likely not the ‘blendedness’ that makes the difference, but rather the fundamental re-consideration of the content in light of new instructional and media choices.” Richard Voos, Blended Learning-What is it and where might it take us? Sloan-C View, Volume 2, Issue 1 – Feb, Available at: “The best current evidence is that media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in nutrition… only the content of the vehicle can influence achievement.” Richard.Clark, “Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media”. Review of Educational Research, Winter, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1983, pp (Full text available from )http://www.springerlink.com/content/681t j5/fulltext.pdf So…What Does it Mean? “There’s an important point that is easy to miss in the frenzy of change. Web 2.0 is not about technology, and neither is e-Learning 2.0. The human element is what makes the new Web work. Without user-generated content, the new Web would be an empty shell of fancy technologies.” e-Learning Guild, What is e-Learning 2.0?, Aug, 2008 Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

26 Collaboration + Teamwork = Success It’s not just about technology…it’s about people Training/education is the process Learning is the outcome The technology is the means Receiver (Learner) Sender (Instructor) Delivery System Focus on learning outcomes…the end result: Improving human performance Final Note: The Learning Mantra Definitions Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Elasticity Market AnalysisDefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

27 End of Presentation Click to go back to Presentation Map Click to go back to prior slide “One only needs two tools in life: WD-40 to make things go, and duct tape to make them stop.” G. M. Weilacher, American humorist “and a hammer to pound things in and a screw driver to pry them out.” my wife

28 Learning Environment Component Distance Learning Traditional Classroom Synchronous Asynchronous Back to Main Page Back to Main Page Learning Environment Page Synchronous Asynchronous Learning Environment PageSynchronousAsynchronous A learning environment can either be synchronous or asynchronous, per se, the learning is either occurring real-time with an instructor (synchronous), or it is occurring without the presence of an instructor (asynchronous). Regardless, each learning environment has their distinct advantages and disadvantages, and the goal of developing a blended learning strategy is to leverage those specific attributes of each environment to ensure the most optimum use of resources to attain the instructional goal.

29 The Synchronous Learning Environment Advantages Provides for a dialectic learning environment with a high level of interactivity Encourages spontaneity of oral responses Immediate reinforcement of ideas Supports activation learning strategies such as idea generation (brainstorming) Provides for peer support (social learning theory) Allows for peer-to-peer interaction Structured learning environment Back to Main Page Learning Environment Page Synchronous AsynchronousBack to Main PageLearning Environment PageSynchronousAsynchronous Disadvantages Limited to same time Required dedicated instructor Does not provide for self-pacing May be limited to same place (albeit at a distance) High cognitive load SynchronousAsynchronous

30 Different Time Different/Same Place Advantages Provides for more opportunity of reflective thought Not constrained by time Delayed reinforcement of ideas Provides for flexibility in delivery of content Less structured learning environment Provides for flexibility in location (home, office, etc.) The Asynchronous Learning Environment Back to Main Page Learning Environment Page Synchronous AsynchronousBack to Main PageLearning Environment PageSynchronousAsynchronous Disadvantages No live interaction Longer completion times “Just-in-time” = “do-it-on-your own-time” Higher non-completion rates— pacing not optimized

31 Media Component Some instructional media may be more appropriate than others in supporting either a synchronous or asynchronous learning environment, but no single medium is inherently better or worse than another. Although the delivery medium does not affect the content, the selection of certain media may affect how you design the content based on the attributes of that specific medium. Regardless, when the “most appropriate” media are selected based on the ISD process, then learning outcomes will not be affected. Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy PortabilityMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability Synchronicity Asynchronous Instructional Media Synchronous Instructional Media Portability Wikis, blogs, discussion boards Media are vehicles that simply deliver their contents. When developing a blended learning solution, the selection of the most appropriate media is not based solely on the attributes of the media, but the potential impact it may have on the design of the instructional components and corresponding physical learning environment. Click here for more on media mapped to the distance learning environment.here

32 Taxonomy of Media for Blended Learning The taxonomy is focused primarily on a dichotomous learning environment * * Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy PortabilityBack to Main Page Media ComponentTaxonomyPortability Click here for note on use of Wikis & Blogs as collaborative toolshere

33 Integrating Media: A Blended Learning Approach Synchronous Media Satellite e-learning Video Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics Web Conferencing/SLS Webinars Asynchronous Media Online (Web-Based Training) Computer-based Training Video Tape/DVD Audio Tape Podcast/vodcast Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy PortabilityBack to Main Page Media ComponentTaxonomyPortability Integrating any combination of synchronous/ asynchronous media with the traditional classroom results in a blended learning solution. Traditional Classroom

34 Synchronous Instructional Media Internet-based and delivered over the Web that enable synchronous audio and/or text chat, video, document and application sharing, whiteboards, presentations, etc. Can support synchronous oral interaction between the instructor and remote students at multiple locations as well as supporting Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE) or webinars. Due to bandwidth limitations (basically, low-bandwidth applications), high- resolution images and video may be limited. Note: The application of web conferencing in a learning environment is also known as synchronous learning systems (SLS). Synchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI)/Web Conferencing (Synchronous Learning Systems) ITV is defined as a one-way, full motion video and audio transmission of classroom instruction through a telecommunications channel such as satellite, cable TV, or Instructional TV Fixed Service (ITFS), a dedicated 2.5GHz spectrum managed by the FCC and limited to educational programming only, usually transmitted via microwave Instructional Television Instructional Television (ITV) Audiographics combines audio conferencing with personal computer text and graphics, allowing both voice and data to be transmitted to remote sites. Typically, a site consists of audio conference equipment, plus a large screen that serves as an electronic whiteboard. This system allows for two-way data exchange (limited to high- resolution still images only) and a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor and students at multiple sites. Audiographics An audio-only environment in which students in different locations use telephones or audio conferencing equipment to communicate with each other in real time. Supports a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor, remote students, and multiple sites but does not support visual images and graphics, and often supplemented by electronic or printed handouts. Can be integrated with other delivery systems to provide synchronous audio. Audio Conferencing Description Technology Delivery

35 towers. This specific application would not be available to instructional programming programming received via commercial cable TV). Due to the bandwidth available via satellite or ITFS, this delivery medium can emulate the live, traditional classroom environment but at a distance. ITV is sometimes referred to as Business Television (BTV), Interactive Video Teletraining, or Interactive TV, and can be transmitted via analog or digital systems. Instructional Television (ITV)- con’t Satellite e-learning represents the next generation of distributed media. Utilizing IP (Internet Protocol) as the network layer and distribution technology, it also incorporates the latest MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) video standard or latest version of Widows Media. Similar in application to ITV, it allows for the live traditional classroom to be transmitted to a remote site while synchronous oral interactivity is supported by audio teleconferencing or student response systems integrating audio and keypad technology (data interaction). Additionally, since satellite e-learning uses IP, video streaming can be utilized at extremely high bandwidths (~3.0Mbps). The IP-based video can be distributed directly to the user’s end-point and then distributed via the LAN to either a classroom or desktop computer, or both. Also, satellite e-learning can easily transmit large multimedia/web-based training modules (known as data casting) without being constrained by bandwidth, as is common with a terrestrial network. This capability allows the data to bypass the WAN by transmitting directly to the user’s end- point and then distributed locally via the LAN, thereby effectively bypassing the terrestrial infrastructure and the Internet. Satellite e-learning is also referred to as BTV/IP (Business Television/Internet Protocol). Satellite e-learning Description Technology Delivery Synchronous Instructional Media

36 Technology Delivery Description Video Teleconferencing (VTC) VTC systems are two-way communication systems that offer both audio and video from local and remote sites and provide for synchronous interaction between the instructor and remote students at multiple locations. It allows for the instructor to observe the students at the far end (remote location), allowing the student to demonstrate an event. These systems can be terrestrial, satellite-based, or microwave- based Instructional TV Fixed Service (ITFS). Generally VTCs transmit and receive between 384Kbps – 1.5Mbps, with the next generation coders/decoders (codecs) IP enabled. Synchronous Instructional Media

37 Back to Taxonomy When evaluating media components, wikis, blogs, and discussion boards are primarily collaborative tools and not considered stand-alone instructional media delivery options. However, they can be integrated into a course/learning module in developing a social learning structure that supports active learning and knowledge construction through peer-to-peer interaction. In a research study investigating the interplay of synchronous and asynchronous communication used in online courses, students seemed more satisfied with face-to-face courses that used asynchronous discussion boards as alternative communication media than courses that were entirely asynchronous based. Significant data were found to indicate the effect of synchronous media in a mostly asynchronous discussion forum. The ability of synchronous media to foster social presence is not shown or disproved by the research Source: A Field Study of Use of Synchronous Chat in Online Courses (2002), Retrieved from:

38 Technology Delivery Description Asynchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI) On-demand, online-based instruction stored on a server and accessed across a distributed electronic network. It can be delivered over the Internet or private local area network (LANs) or Wide Area Networks (WANs) where the content is displayed utilizing a web browser. Student access is asynchronous, self-paced, and does not provide for synchronous interaction between the instructor and the remote student. High- resolution images and video may be limited due to available bandwidth. Computer Based Instruction (CBI) Interactive instructional experience between a computer and the learner where the computer provides the majority of the stimulus and the student responds. The computer is the storage and delivery device with all content resident on the student’s computer. It provides the primary display and storage capability and can support high- resolution images and video. Correspondence (print) Entirely print-based, asynchronous and self-paced. Can be augmented through the use of multimedia CD-ROM. Instructor feedback can be facilitated through the use of . Used extensively to support other media Recorded Audio (Tape and digital broadcast) Recorded audio content—on tape or transmitted electronically—which can be used as a stand-alone delivery tool or part of a blended learning approach. Can be used as the sole means of content or as part of a blended approach. Recorded Video (Tape and digital broadcast) A method of capturing learning content on tape or as a digital file for viewing on- demand. Can be used as the sole means of content or as part of a blended approach. Often used to capture a real time event and is an effective distribution medium that supports high-resolution images and video but does not support a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor and the remote student. Asynchronous Instructional Media

39 Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy PortabilityMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability Refers to how portable (mobile) a specific media may be, e.g., cell phones, ipods/Blackberry’s, personal DVD players, other similar wireless devices. When evaluating portability, consider symmetry, per se, the amount of information [digital bits] that flows to/from the sender and receiver in either direction. For example: ◦ Asymmetrical interaction is when the flow of information is predominantly in a single direction such as in a didactic lecture or asynchronous learning module with no interaction between the student and instructor. ◦ Conversely, in a conferencing or collaborative learning environment, the information flow is symmetrical, per se, the information flow is evenly distributed between learners and instructors and equal amounts of digital information is flowing both directions. A close relationship exists between symmetry and interactivity. The more the student-instructor interaction, the greater the need for a symmetrical delivery system. Portability

40 Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical Learning Environments  Video Conferencing  Audio Conferencing  Web conferencing  Satellite e-learning  Print  Pre-recorded audio/ video (Tape/DVD)  ipods/vpods/personal communication devices  CBT/WBT Low High Symmetry Interactivity When articulating a blended learning strategy, considering symmetry of the learning environment is almost as important as considering its synchronicity. If not taken into account, it may lead the course designer to make less than optimal choices in instructional media selection. Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy PortabilityBack to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability Click on the icon of how Merrill Lynch use of mobile learning

41 Instructional Component: Variables to Consider Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Complexity Rapidity of Change Multimedia (aural/visual) Interactivity (strategies supporting specific media) Collaboration (P2P) Synchronous Asynchronous Didactic # Collaboration (P2P) Dialectic* * Instructor-student-instructor # Instructor-student Content Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies When developing a blended learning solution, maintaining instructional quality is paramount. Consequently, learning objectives are never compromised when developing a blended learning solution. Instructional strategies are the products of learning objectives and serve to ensure the learning objectives and facilitate the transfer of learning. Learning Styles Click for information on learning styles

42 The most significant factors in student learning are quality and effectiveness of instruction, and the most important single factor in developing a blended learning solution is the instructional objective. The level of cognitive objectives is a critical variable to consider when selecting the most appropriate media for blended learning, and generally speaking: Note on Learning Objectives Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels where knowledge and comprehension and repetition/drill & practice are the primary focus, and Synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels (synthesis/analysis/evaluation) where a synchronous learning environment is required to support a high level of interaction (dialog). Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

43 A learning objective (aka behavioral objective, instructional objective, enabling objective, or performance objective) is a succinct statement that describes a specific learning activity o Includes a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit in order to evaluate competency o Expressed in terms of the student and formulated in terms of observable behavior and the special conditions in which the behavior is manifested. What is a Learning Objective? Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

44 The purpose of creating learning objectives is to provide a means of clarifying the instructional goal and ensure the training/education is successful. Establishes the criteria for student performance used to assess learning Used to develop instructional strategies Basis for media selection Why Developing Learning Objectives? Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

45 Types of Objectives Instructional objectives are developed from a taxonomy known as the domain of learning objectives and includes three overlapping domains: Psychomotor Affective Cognitive −Demonstrated by knowledge recall and the intellectual skills: comprehending information, organizing ideas, analyzing and synthesizing data, applying knowledge, choosing among alternatives in problem solving, and evaluating ideas or actions Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

46 Knowledge The first level of learning is knowledge. Knowledge can be characterized as awareness of specifics and of the ways and means of dealing with specifics. The knowledge level focuses on memory or recall where the learner recognizes information, ideas, principles in the approximate form in which they were learned. Comprehension Comprehension is the next level of learning and encompasses understanding. Has the knowledge been internalized or understood? The student should be able to translate, comprehend, or interpret information based on the knowledge. Application Application is the use of knowledge. Can the student use the knowledge in a new situation? It can also be the application of theory to solve a real world problem. The student selects, transfers, and uses data and principles to complete a problem or task. Analysis Analysis involves taking apart a piece of knowledge, and investigates parts of a concept. It can only occur if the student has obtained knowledge of and comprehends a concept. The student examines, classifies, hypothesizes, collects data, and draws conclusions. Synthesis Synthesis is the creative act. It’s the taking of knowledge and the creation of something new. It is an inductive process—one of building rather than one of breaking down. The student originates, integrates, and combines ideas into something new to him/her. Evaluation Evaluation is judgment or decision-making where the student appraises, assesses or criticizes on a basis of specific standards/criteria. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives A metaphor depicting the taxonomy of learning objectives can be thought as assembling blocks in building a pyramid. The knowledge and comprehension levels create the foundation from which one develops higher order thinking skills commensurate with the higher cognitive levels (analysis, synthesis,& evaluation). Lower Higher Knowing Doing Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

47 Instruction is designed to transfer knowledge from the instructor to the learner to the real-world environment. The transfer of learning is facilitated by the development of instructional strategies o Certain synchronous instructional technologies may be best suited for instructional strategies that require a live and dialectic learning environment. o Conversely, there are asynchronous instructional technologies that are best integrated with strategies that require asynchronous learning environment. The dissemination of content through the use of instructional media is only as effective as the design of the instruction Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies Click here for an explanation of the difference between instructional strategies and cognitive learning strategies.here

48 Table of Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies Description Narration/Lecture Allows for transfer of learning through mere declaration and explication of knowledge. When interaction is available, it allows for reinforcement of behavior, spontaneous questioning, dialogue, and social interaction with immediate feedback. Note: Lecture is a very efficient strategy to transfer large amounts of content but has a high cognitive load. Demonstration Skill transfer through the depiction of procedural tasks, events, processes, etc. Role Playing Involves recreating a situation relating to a real-world problem in which participants act out various roles. Promotes an understanding of other people’s positions and their attitudes as well as the procedures that may be used for diagnosing and solving problems. Learners may assume the role of a particular character, organization, professional occupation, etc. Guided Discussion Supports a synchronous, dialectic learning environment through the spontaneous and free- flowing exchange of information. Encourages active, participatory learning that supports knowledge transfer through dialogue. Students may discuss material more in-depth, share insights and experiences, and answer questions. Simulation Replicates or mimics a real event and allows for continual observation. A simulation creates a realistic model of an actual situation or environment. Illustration Depicts abstract concepts with evocative, palpable real-world examples. Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

49 Instructional Strategies Description Imagery Imagery is the mental visualization of objects, events, and arrays. It enables internalized visual images that relate to information to be learned. Imagery helps to create or recreate an experience in the learner’s mind. Imagery involves all the senses: visual, kinesthetic, auditory, and tactile. Modeling A contrived, simplified version of an object or concept that encapsulates its salient features. Brainstorming Brainstorming is a valid and effective problem-solving method in which criticism is delayed and imaginative ways of understanding a situation are welcomed, where quantity is wanted and combination and improvement are sought. Brainstorming can occur with individuals or in a group setting, and involves generating a vast number of ideas in order to find an effective method for solving a problem. Case Studies A problem-solving strategy similar to simulation that works by presenting a realistic situation that requires learners to respond and explore possible solutions. Drill & Practice Repetition of a task or behavior until the desired learning outcome is achieved. Allows for transfer of knowledge from working memory to long-term memory. Table of Instructional Strategies Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

50 MediaAppropriate Instructional Strategy Asynchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI) - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Tutorials - Demonstrations - Case Studies - Simulations - Modeling - Illustrations - Role Playing - Drill and Practice Computer Based Instruction (CBI) - Narration/Description - Illustrations - Case Studies - Simulation - Role Playing - Drill and Practice - Demonstration - Tutorials Correspondence (print) - Narration/Description - Drill and Practice - Case Studies - Narration Recorded Audio (Tape and digital broadcast/RSS) - Narration/Description (Lecture) Recorded Video (Tape and digital broadcast) - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Case Studies - Illustrations Instructional Strategies Supporting Asynchronous Media Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

51 MediaAppropriate Instructional Strategy Audio Conferencing - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Guided Discussion - Brainstorming Audiographics - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Guided Discussion - Brainstorming - Illustrations Synchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI)/Web Conferencing - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Case Studies - Discussion - Demonstration - Simulation - Illustrations Video Teleconferencing (VTC) - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Panel Discussion - Guided Discussion - Simulation - Brainstorming - Demonstration - Drill and Practice - Case Studies - Drill and Practice - Role Playing Instructional Television (ITV)/ Satellite e-learning - Narration/Description (Lecture - Panel Discussion - Guided Discussion - Simulation - Brainstorming - Demonstration - Case Studies - Drill and Practice - Role Playing Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies Instructional Strategies Supporting Synchronous Media

52 While media does not affect the content, it can affect how you design the content for a specific medium Variables to consider: Media richness (motion handling, visual clarity/pixel resolution) Dispersion of workforce/distribution of content Ability to update content quickly Technological infrastructure Capital & recurring costs Bandwidth Hardware end points Portability Simplex (one-way) data vis-a-vis duplex (2-way data) Summarizing: The Media Component Learning Environment Component Media Component Instructional Component SynchronicitySymmetry Asynchronous Instructional Media Synchronous Instructional Media Symmetrical Media Portability Asymmetrical Media Click here for more on distance learning environmentshere Click here for e-learning 2.0 technologies & definitionshere Click here for an introduction to Media Synchronicity Theoryhere

53 Learning Environment Component Media Component Instructional Component Synchronicity: Is the learning environment primarily synchronous or asynchronous or a combination of both? Variables to consider: Time & space Live interaction Collaboration Pacing Flexibility in content delivery Timeliness of completion Reinforcement of ideas (immediate vs. delayed) Reflection of ideas Summarizing: The Learning Environment Component Distance Learning Traditional Classroom Synchronous Asynchronous

54 Learning Environment Component Media Component Instructional Component Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels whereas synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels. Variables to consider: Level of interactivity Spontaneity Collaboration Peer-to-peer Instructor-student (didactic) Instructor-student-instructor (dialectic) Cognitive load Reinforcement of ideas/thoughts (immediate/delayed) Rapidity of content change Complexity of content Level of cognitive objectives (click here for a brief over of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives)click here What about learning styles (click here)?click here Summarizing: The Instructional Component Instructional Strategies Instructional Objectives Content Rapidity of Change Complexity Multimedia (aural/visual) Collaboration (P2P) Interactivity Dialectic Collaboration (P2P) Synchronous Asynchronous Didactic

55 Synchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies Instructional TV/Satellite e-Learning Video Teleconferencing Web Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion/ Group Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Role Playing Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Case Studies Simulations Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming)

56 Asynchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies Pre-recorded audio (podcast, cassette, CD) Correspondence Pre-recorded video (CD/DVD, vodcast, tape) Narration (Lecture) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Drill & Practice Computer-based Instruction Narration (Lecture) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Role Playing Drill & Practice Narration (Lecture) Case Studies Drill & Practice Webinars Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/ Panel Discussion Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Simulations Role Playing

57 Portability: An IBM Workforce Mobility Perspective* Blended learning allows companies to mix scheduled and unscheduled training modules and structured and unstructured learning experiences, as well as provide self-paced material to keep today’s learners engaged. * Source: On demand learning: blended learning for today’s evolving workforce, IBM Learning Solutions, September 2005, Available at: Return to previous page

58 Mobile Learning: Merrill Lynch Compliance Training Delivered via BlackBerry’s* * Source: Chief Learning Officer magazine, Merrill Lynch: Bullish on Mobile Learning, April, Background. With a population of 60,000 employees, Merrill Lynch has more than 21,000 BlackBerry devices in use globally, with 500 new devices being added monthly. One of the primary advantages of using BlackBerries to delivery m-learning is that the devices are integrated within the corporate network. Goals. Enable learning outside the office during naturally occurring downtime; leverage existing BlackBerry usage habits; allow employees to complete learning in small bursts, regardless of time and place with no need for network coverage. Results. Offered 3 compliance training courses via BlackBerry for a 2 month period and achieved: Increase of 1.21% in average competency score to the control groups Attained a 12% higher completion rate at the 45-day milestone Attained an average of 45% less time in training, with some completing the training in <80% with no loss of comprehension Return to previous page

59 What Might Go in the Blend* * Source: Allison Rossett and Rebecca Vaughan Frazee, Blended Learning Opportunities, American Management Association Special Report, 2006 Return to previous page

60 Delivery Media Mapped to the Distance Learning Environment Distance Learning Classroom group centric (classroom environment) primarily synchronous dialectic & collaborative constrained by time & place Supporting Media Satellite e-learning Video Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics Virtual Classroom individual centric (office environment) synchronous & asynchronous capability mostly didactic but can support interaction constrained by time not place Supporting Media Web conferencing tools Virtual Learner Individual centric (portable to any location) primarily asynchronous primarily didactic with little/no interaction not constrained by time & place Supporting Media Mobile devices Since media are vehicles that simply deliver their contents, the selection of the most appropriate media is not based solely on the attributes of the media, but the potential impact it may have on the design of the instructional components and corresponding physical learning environment. For example, the group centric distance learning classroom is best supported by media that can provide for a dialectic and collaborative environment, but is limited by time and place, whereas portable media best supports the individual learner anytime/anyplace but with limited peer support and interaction. Return to previous page

61 Delivery Media Mapped to the Distance Learning Environment Distance Learning Classroom group centric (classroom environment) primarily synchronous dialectic & collaborative constrained by time & place Supporting Media Satellite e-learning Video Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics Virtual Classroom individual centric (office environment) synchronous & asynchronous capability mostly didactic but can support interaction constrained by time not place Supporting Media Web conferencing tools Virtual Learner Individual centric (portable to any location) primarily asynchronous primarily didactic with little/no interaction not constrained by time & place Supporting Media Mobile devices Return to previous page In a group centric distance learning classroom, the most appropriate media are those that can provide for a dialectic and collaborative environment but maybe constrained by time and place. However, portable media best supports the individual learner anytime/anyplace but with limited peer support and interaction.

62 Teaching with Instructional Television (ITV)-- Did you Know… Return to previous page There is a tendency to regard the future of distance learning as belonging solely to online or web classes. However, some researchers have found that courses offered in ITV were sometimes preferred by students even when the same course was offered online. Also, the visual and interactive nature of instructional television benefited students and that student satisfaction with ITV has been generally confirmed. Teaching with ITV (Jan, 2008). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning:

63 Media synchronicity theory is primarily focused on groups and proposes that a set of media capabilities are important to group work, and that all tasks are composed of two fundamental communication processes (conveyance and convergence). Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes (i.e., tasks) as proposed by media richness theory. The theory postulates it is possible for one medium to possess different levels of a communication capability depending upon how it is configured and used. Media possess many capabilities, each of which may be more or less important in a given situation. The "richest" medium is that which best provides the set of capabilities needed by the situation: the individuals, task, and social context within which they interact (Note: richness applies to the message/content, not the richness of the visual media). Thus, concluding that face-to-face communication is the "richest" media is inappropriate. “Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes as tested in examinations of media richness theory.” Media Synchronicity Theory* * Source: Alan R. Dennis, Alan R., Valacich, Joseph S., (1999), Rethinking Media Richness: Towards a Theory of Media Synchronicity, Retrieved from: Return to Summarizing the Media Component

64 Media Synchronicity Theory: Dimensions of Task Functions, Communication Processes, and Media Characteristics “Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes as tested in examinations of media richness theory.” * Source: Alan R. Dennis, Alan R., Valacich, Joseph S., (1999), Rethinking Media Richness: Towards a Theory of Media Synchronicity, Return to Summarizing the Media Component

65 e-Learning 2.0 Technologies Wikis Blogs Podcasts Vodcasts Immersive learning environments, e.g., multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) Note: Wikis & blogs are primarily collaborative tools and not instructional media used to deliver content Definitions* Web 2.0: Technologies that foster user-generated content, user interactivity, collaboration, and information sharing such as wikis, blogs, forums, podcasting, and social networking. e-Learning 2.0: “The idea of learning through digital connections and peer collaboration enhanced by technologies driving Web 2.0. Users/learners are empowered to search, create, and collaborate in order to fulfill intrinsic needs to learn new information.” *Source: e-Learning Guild Research Report on e-Learning 2.0—Learning in a Web 2.0 World, Sep 2008 Return to previous page

66 Virtual worlds are online, computer-generated simulations of simulated environments where users guide their "avatar," or digital representation of their physical selves, to accomplish various goals. Typical virtual world activities include meeting and socializing with other avatars, buying and selling virtual items, playing games, etc. Virtual worlds combine both synchronous capabilities (audio, text chat, whiteboards), as well as asynchronous capabilities (static text, embedded learning modules, learning objects, etc.). Within the context of the evolution of the Internet from Web 1.0 to Web 3.0, Virtual worlds--especially the 3D kinds--are classified under the Web 3.0 category because of their profound ability to integrate multiple types of content, information sources, and feeds into one highly engaging and interactive format. For information on virtual worlds used in the Federal Government: Federal Consortium on Virtual Worlds. Hosted by National Defense University (NDU), Information Resources Management College (IRMC):

67 Knowledge The first level of learning is knowledge. Knowledge can be characterized as awareness of specifics and of the ways and means of dealing with specifics. The knowledge level focuses on memory or recall where the learner recognizes information, ideas, principles in the approximate form in which they were learned. Comprehension Comprehension is the next level of learning and encompasses understanding. Has the knowledge been internalized or understood? The student should be able to translate, comprehend, or interpret information based on the knowledge. Application Application is the use of knowledge. Can the student use the knowledge in a new situation? It can also be the application of theory to solve a real world problem. The student selects, transfers, and uses data and principles to complete a problem or task. Analysis Analysis involves taking apart a piece of knowledge, and investigates parts of a concept. It can only occur if the student has obtained knowledge of and comprehends a concept. The student examines, classifies, hypothesizes, collects data, and draws conclusions. Synthesis Synthesis is the creative act. It’s the taking of knowledge and the creation of something new. It is an inductive process—one of building rather than one of breaking down. The student originates, integrates, and combines ideas into something new to him/her. Evaluation Evaluation is judgment or decision-making where the student appraises, assesses or criticizes on a basis of specific standards/criteria. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives A metaphor depicting the taxonomy of learning objectives can be thought as assembling blocks in building a pyramid. The knowledge and comprehension levels create the foundation from which one develops higher order thinking skills commensurate with the higher cognitive levels (analysis, synthesis,& evaluation). Knowing Doing Continuum of Cognitive Domain Objectives Lower Higher Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Return to prior page

68 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives Mapped to Instructional Media* Learning Environment Instructional Media Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Synchronous Web Conferencing Audiographics Satellite e-Learning Audio/video teleconferencing Creating (Evaluation) Evaluating (Synthesis) Analyzing (Analysis) Applying (Application) Understanding (Comprehension) Remembering (Knowledge) Complex Simple Asynchronous Web-based Training (WBT) CBT Instructional TV (ITV) Pre-recorded audio/video (CDs/DVDs, video/audio tapes/iPods) Correspondence Return to prior page * Adapted from John Lasseter’s media selection table

69 What are Learning Styles/Cognitive Styles? Cognitive style is viewed as a bipolar dimension representing a person's typical or habitual mode of problem solving, thinking, perceiving and remembering; considered stable over time, and related to theoretical or academic research. Learning style entails many elements, are related to practical applications, and usually not “either-or” extremes. Learning styles are characterized by how information is preferentially perceived (sensory or intuitive), organized (inductive or deductive), and processed (active or reflective), and modality is preference (visual, aural, or kinesthetic). What cognitive science has revealed is learners differ in their abilities with different modalities, but teaching to a learner’s best modality doesn't affect his/her educational achievement. What does matter is whether the learner is taught in the content's best modality. All students learn more when content drives the choice of modality. Learning styles vis-à-vis learning modalities: Learning/cognitive styles are habitual ways of processing information to memory, per se, they are ways one senses, thinks, solves problems, and remembers information. On the other hand, learning, or perceptual modalities, are sensory based and refer to the primary way our bodies take in information though our senses: visual (seeing), auditory (hearing), kinesthetic (moving), and tactile (touching). Note: Since neuroscience has revealed 90% of what the brain processes is visual information, one’s primary learning modality is visual. Sharp, J. G., Byrne, J., & Bowker, R. (2008). The trouble with VAK. Educational Futures Vol.1(1) August Retrieved from Return to Prior Page

70 Different Learning/Cognitive Styles & Impact Research has identified over 71 different types of learning styles categorized into 13 major learning styles models. The majority of research does not support a significant statistical relationship between learning/cognitive styles and learning outcomes, and postulates learning/cognitive styles have <5% affect on the variability in learning (Note: Prior knowledge and motivation account for ~70% of the variability in learning). Source: Willingham, Daniel. Do Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learners Need Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Instruction? American Educator, Summer Available at: Low validity and reliability scores of the instruments used to identify specific learning styles raise serious doubts about their psychometric properties. Sources: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. The Learning and Skills Research Centre, Learning and Skills Council, Department for Education and Skills, UK (2004). Available at Cognitive Styles and Distance Education, Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume II, Number III, Fall1999. Available at: Return to Prior Page

71 What are Learning Styles/Cognitive Styles? Cognitive style is viewed as a bipolar dimension representing a person's typical or habitual mode of problem solving, thinking, perceiving and remembering; considered stable over time, and related to theoretical or academic research. Learning style entails many elements, are related to practical applications, and usually not “either-or” extremes. Learning styles are characterized by how information is preferentially perceived (sensory or intuitive), organized (inductive or deductive), and processed (active or reflective), and modality is preference (visual, aural, or kinesthetic). What cognitive science has revealed is learners differ in their abilities with different modalities, but teaching to a learner’s best modality doesn't affect his/her educational achievement. What does matter is whether the learner is taught in the content's best modality. All students learn more when content drives the choice of modality. Learning styles vis-à-vis learning modalities: Learning/cognitive styles are habitual ways of processing information to memory, per se, they are ways one senses, thinks, solves problems, and remembers information. On the other hand, learning, or perceptual modalities, are sensory based and refer to the primary way our bodies take in information though our senses: visual (seeing), auditory (hearing), kinesthetic (moving), and tactile (touching). Note: Since neuroscience has revealed 90% of what the brain processes is visual information, one’s primary learning modality is visual. Sharp, J. G., Byrne, J., & Bowker, R. (2008). The trouble with VAK. Educational Futures Vol.1(1) August Retrieved from

72 Return to Prior Page Different Learning/Cognitive Styles & Impact Research has identified over 71 different types of learning styles categorized into 13 major learning styles models. The majority of research does not support a significant statistical relationship between learning/cognitive styles and learning outcomes, and postulates learning/cognitive styles have <5% affect on the variability in learning (Note: Prior knowledge and motivation account for ~70% of the variability in learning). Source: Willingham, Daniel. Do Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learners Need Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Instruction? American Educator, Summer Available at: Low validity and reliability scores of the instruments used to identify specific learning styles raise serious doubts about their psychometric properties. Sources: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. The Learning and Skills Research Centre, Learning and Skills Council, Department for Education and Skills, UK (2004). Available at Cognitive Styles and Distance Education, Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume II, Number III, Fall1999. Available at:

73 Difference Between Instructional Strategies and Cognitive Learning Strategies Return to Prior Page Instructional strategies focus on the delivery of knowledge, while cognitive strategies focus on how the learner processes the knowledge; are developed in support of the instructional goal and specific learning (instructional) objectives; is a product that can be used to develop instructional materials, student/group exercises/activities, and media selection. Cognitive learning strategies are methods used to help learners link new information to prior knowledge in facilitating the transfer of learning and focuses on how the learner processes the knowledge; are mental strategies which occur in the minds of people and employed by the instructional designer to facilitate the activation and retention of prior knowledge; can be represented based on the information presented, and are used as tools to construct knowledge in new concepts.


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