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Introduction to Blended Learning:

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1 Introduction to Blended Learning:
Instructional Design Considerations Dr. Jolly Holden Graduate Adjunct Faculty School of Education American InterContinental University Chairman Emeritus, United States Distance Learning Association Skip Intro: Click for Presentation Map

2 Introduction Blended learning is more than just combining an online component to the traditional classroom…it is a systematic process of selecting the most appropriate media for a specific learning intervention based upon the learning objectives. With that said, given the plethora of instructional media available to the instructional designer today, combined with the emergence of web-based collaborative tools, there is a renewed focus on integrating Web 2.0/e-learning 2.0 tools and other instructional media in meeting today’s learning challenges. “Blended learning represents a [fundamental] shift in instructional strategy” North American Council for Online Learning, Blended Learning: The Convergence of Online and Face-to-Face Education, 2008

3 Why Blended Learning: The Challenge
Driven by the demand to increase learning opportunities and reduce costs without impacting instructional integrity, educators and trainers are continually challenged in searching for the for right mix of instructional media. Taking into consideration all of the instructional technologies available today, selecting the right mix of live, virtual, and constructive courseware delivery methods in meeting the needs of our learners can be a challenging and daunting task. Consequently, this presentation address these two basic questions: Q1: What is the most appropriate mix of instructional media, and… Q2: What are the variables to consider when selecting the most appropriate media?

4 Rules of Engagement for Blended Learning
Blended learning allows the instructional designer the opportunity to leverage the strengths of instructional media with the efficacy of the instructional components to ensure the instructional goal is attained. For a blended learning solution to be successful, it is imperative a thorough media analysis and needs assessment is conducted while addressing the fundamental components of the instructional systems design process. “Migrating to blended learning formats requires instructional design analysis that integrates with the technologies that will be utilized to deliver it.” The e-Learning Developers Journal (2005)

5 Basic Blended Learning Concepts
Delivery media does not affect the content, but affects how you design the content Asynchronous media is not adaptive to dynamic content Synchronous media can accommodate dynamic content

6 Basic Blended Learning Concepts
Delivery media does not affect the content, but affects how you design the content Asynchronous media is not adaptive to dynamic content Synchronous media can accommodate dynamic content Blended learning integrates multiple media with the appropriate instructional strategies, and can also include Collaborative tools used to facilitate the transfer of learning (wikis, discussion boards) Adaptive tools used for dynamic content/increased interaction (blogs)

7 Basic Blended Learning Concepts
Delivery media does not affect the content, but affects how you design the content Asynchronous media is not adaptive to dynamic content Synchronous media can accommodate dynamic content Blended learning integrates multiple media with the appropriate instructional strategies, and can also include Collaborative tools used to facilitate the transfer of learning (wikis, blogs, discussion boards) Adaptive tools used for dynamic instructional design of content and increased interaction (immersive learning environments) Media attributes are important in that they may affect your choice of instructional strategies

8 The Blended Learning Journey
This presentation will provide some background on blended learning and instructional media, as well as introducing variables to consider when developing a blended learning strategy. Additionally, this presentation will introduce the concepts of synchronicity (integration of learning environments) and elasticity (integration of instructional media with instructional strategies) to ensure the right mix is attained. Presentation objectives: Review the Evolution of Instructional Media Define Blended Learning Define Learning Environments Define Elasticity and Synchronicity Identify Instructional Media Selection Considerations Identify & Evaluate Instructional & Pedagogical Variables

9 The Blended Learning Presentation Map
Return to Title Slide Evolution of Instructional Media [for distance learning] Blended Learning Definitions Learning Environments (synchronous & asynchronous) Learning Model Learning Environment Component Instructional Component Media Component Click for Glossary Elasticity Implications (trends from the industry) Navigation Bar Click on any link for direct access to that topic Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

10 Evolution of Instructional Media for Distance Learning: The Beginning…
“I do not know any innovation upon existing methods more radical and revolutionary than this” Although this quote sounds as if it were referring to a new technological break- through, in reality, this profound statement was uttered by the Reverend Joseph H. Odell, D. D. (1910) in his address titled "The New Era in Education: A Study of the Psychology of Correspondence Methods of Instruction" delivered in 1910 at the dedication of the instruction building of the International Correspondence Schools in Scranton, Pennsylvania. Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

11 Evolution of Distance Learning Media:
The Emergence of Blended Learning What does it mean to the future of education and training? As instructional media continues to evolve, propelled by advances in technology and fueled by the need to increase learning opportunities, the evolution and advancements of instructional media will continue to accelerate as well. As a result, blended learning will become an integral component in developing a comprehensive blended learning strategy. Consequently, When developing a learning strategy for the future, it is sometimes prudent to study the past in order to develop a plan for tomorrow. “The term blended learning has been redefined, from a combination of instructor and Web-based training to a blend of many types of interactive content” Josh Bersin, “Today’s High-Impact Learning Organization”, Chief Learning Officer Magazine, Aug, 2008 Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

12 Distance learning Media
Correspondence (1883-present) In the beginning, there was only correspondence courses, and the concept of “blending” wasn’t born yet. Electronic-assisted Learning (circa 1990-present) Technology-enabled (circa 1950s-1990s TV (satellite & cable) audio tape audio graphics audio conferencing e-learning (circa 1995-present) The Family Tree of Distance learning Media As the country grew and evolved from an agrarian society to an industrialized nation, the demand for education increased significantly. With the ensuinL emergence of radio and TV, the education community quickly realized the potential of these new media and adopted them to distribute education programs to a geographically dispersed workforce. Satellite e-learning/ITV Video Conferencing Video tape/DVD/ ipods Electronic whiteboards Then, as the technology evolved, more delivery tools emerged to where the instructional designer now has a plethora of choices that can be used singularly or integrated to create a blended learning solution. Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

13 Technology-enabled Correspondence Computer-mediated Learning
(1883-present) Electronic-assisted Learning (circa 1990-present) Technology-enabled (circa 1950s-1990s TV (satellite & cable) audio tape audio graphics audio conferencing e-learning (circa 1995-present) Satellite e-learning/ITV Video Conferencing Video tape/DVD/ ipods Electronic whiteboards Note: In the early 90’s, a migration began from a mainframe-centric environment to a more of a stand-alone “distributed” computer environment that allowed for more local hosting of computer-based training (CBT). Computer-mediated Learning (circa 1970-present) Computer-based Training (CBT) Web-based Training Online Learning With the introduction of the computer, learning communities quickly realized the potential of this powerful new technology and adopted it as another delivery tool. As the computer continued to evolve, a new generation of the computer-mediated instruction arrived, and with the emergence of the internet, new collaborative tools and delivery media also appeared. Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

14 Extending the Family Tree of Distance Learning Media to the Future
Correspondence (1883-present) Electronic-assisted Learning (circa 1990-present) Technology-enabled (circa 1950s-1990s e-learning (circa 1995-present) Computer-mediated (circa 1970-present) Computer-based Training (CBT) We-based Training Online Learning Satellite e-learning/ITV Video Conferencing Video tape/DVD/ ipods Electronic whiteboards “Distance learning will evolve from basic enrollment in computer and web-based courses to virtual learning environments that support online collaboration and classes taught by both live and virtual instructors.” Air Force White Paper,. On Learning: The Future of Air Force Education and Training (2008) Change is inevitable, and tomorrow will bring newer and better technologies, accompanied by a new set of challenges, but the goal is the same: Optimize the technology without sacrificing instructional quality. In the end, incorporating sound instructional design principles will provide for a solid foundation to ensure learning outcomes are attained. Web 3.0: Virtual Learning Environments E-learning 2.0: Portability/Wireless PDAs Immersive Learning Environments iphones Immersive Simulation Virtual Worlds “In this global, networked world, several technologies including search engines, blogs, podcasts, Web 2.0 applications and virtual worlds such as Second Life will be used for learning.” Ed Hoff, CLO IBM, Learning in the 21st Century: A Brave New World, CLO Magazine, April, 2008 Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

15 Blended Learning Definitions
Although the application of blended learning has been around for decades, there is no universally accepted definition. While it appears the term first appeared in the literature circa 1999, the following pages articulate several definitions that represent different perspectives in an attempt to define the term, but they all have one essential component in common...an integration of instructional media. The definitions offered in this presentation reflect 5 different perspectives concerning blended learning: Educational Pragmatic Training Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Point of View Holistic A rose by any other name is still a rose More definitions of blended learning available at: Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

16 Blended Learning Definitions
An Educational Perspective* Courses that integrate online with traditional face-to- face class activities in a planned pedagogically valuable manner; and…where a portion (institutionally defined) of face-to-face time is replaced by online activity. Traditional Classroom Online Blended Learning Consequently, from an educational perspective, blended learning is primarily focused on integrating two separate paradigms…the traditional classroom [synchronous] environment and the asynchronous online environment. Note: Hybrid learning, vis-à-vis blended learning, is often used in higher education when the student has a choice between an online class and the traditional class…not necessarily the integration of the two. Source: Laster, S., G. Otte, A. G. Picciano and S. Sorg. Redefining blended learning. Presented at the 2005 Sloan-C Workshop on Blended Learning, Chicago, IL, April 18, 2005. Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

17 Blended Learning Definitions
A Pragmatic Perspective Courses that are taught both in the classroom (face-to-face) and at a distance and that use a mix of different pedagogic strategies (Source: edutechwiki, 2006, Available at More specifically… To combine or mix modes of web-based technology (e.g., live virtual classroom, self-paced instruction, collaborative learning, streaming video, audio, and text) to accomplish an educational goal To combine various pedagogical approaches (e.g., constructivism, behaviorism, cognitivism) to produce an optimal learning outcome with or with out instructional technology To combine any form of instructional technology (e.g., videotape, CD-ROM, web-based training, film) with face-to-face instructor-led training To mix or combine instructional technology with actual job tasks in order to create a harmonious effect of learning and working Source: Margaret Driscoll, n.d, retrieved Jan 5, 2007 from: Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

18 Blended Learning Definitions
A Corporate Training Perspective The use of multiple instructional delivery media to deliver one course or curriculum, such as a sales training course with pre-reading, asynchronous online product knowledge training, and synchronous lectures and role play practices. Source: e-Learning Guild’s Research Report ,Synchronous Learning Systems, June 2008 Synchronous and asynchronous media. For clarification, blended learning is also applied to a mix of online and face-to-face training, and more generally to approaches to course design and delivery that combine different modalities (e.g., self-paced Web-based training, followed by classroom instruction, accompanied by printed job aids, and supplemented by virtual classroom follow-up sessions). Source: e-Learning Guild Handbook on Synchronous e-Learning (2007) “Collaborative online learning is now recognized as a component of a mature blended-learning strategy.” Bersin & Associates, Technology Update: Open Source e-Learning Systems, June 2007 Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

19 Blended Learning Definitions
A Chief Learning Officer Perspective “Executing a learning strategy that integrates multiple delivery modalities (both synchronous and asynchronous) and, in doing so, creating the best possible learning solution for your target audience.” Source: Chief Learning Officer Magazine (www.clomedia.com), Executing Blended Learning, Jan., 2009 Courses will combine live, virtual and constructive formats even while being distributed to increase training effectiveness and as well as shift to more cost-effective methods.” Air Force White Paper,. On Learning: The Future of Air Force Education and Training (2008) Click here for note on Web 3.0 & Virtual Worlds Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications 19

20 Blended Learning Definitions
A Holistic Perspective The delivery of instruction using multiple media* Includes the integration of instructional media into a traditional classroom or into a distance learning environment. Includes any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media. * Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach Note: This definition is a general construct and includes these attributes: Combines more than one media (multiple media), regardless of synchronicity Basis in instructional design Foundation based upon instructional objectives Organization that provides the content –in contrast to purely self-directed learning Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

21 The Basics The Learning Environment: Two Dimensions Synchronous
Asynchronous Same time/same place (traditional instructor-led classroom) Same time/different place (virtual instructor-led classroom) Different time/different place Click here to view the Instructional Media Selection Matrix for Distance Learning Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

22 Integration of Both Dimensions: The Concept of Synchronicity
Although synchronicity is dichotomous, per se, either synchronous or asynchronous, it does not mean they are mutually exclusive when considering a blended learning solution. If viewed as being on opposite ends of a continuum, the degree to which these two dichotomous environments can be integrated would result in a blending of synchronicity. Synchronous Blended Learning Asynchronous Therefore, to attain the most optimum blend, one must consider the vehicle(s) that deliver the content, the [learning environment] in which the learning occurs, and the instructional objective(s) [which drive the development of the content and instructional strategies]. Consequently, blended learning can include any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media. Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

23 Blended Learning Model Concept Map Learning Environment Component
Distance Learning Asynchronous Synchronous Traditional Classroom Learning Environment Component Complexity Instructional Strategies Instructional Objectives Content Rapidity of Change Multimedia (aural/visual) Interactivity Didactic Collaboration (P2P) Asynchronous Dialectic Synchronous Depicted in this concept map is the blended learning model three main components and subcomponents The degree of integration of each of the subcomponents is based upon evaluating specific attributes of each component, resulting in the most appropriate blend to ensure attainment of the instructional goal. Note: This model is based upon a set of related components, although evaluated separately, are viewed holistically, per se, each component’s specific contribution must be viewed as it relates to the sum total of all the parts… which results in a comprehensive blended learning solution. Blended Learning Model Instructional Component Collaborative Tools Media Component Synchronicity Symmetry Asynchronous Instructional Media Synchronous Instructional Media Asymmetrical Media Symmetrical Media Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

24 Blended Learning Model Components
Derived from the blended learning concept map is the tri-dimensional blended learning module. A model can be a description of a system or phenomenon that accounts for its known or inferred properties and used for further study of its characteristics. Therefore, a blended learning model can be used as a guide in evaluating and integrating separate components that would result in an instructionally sound learning situation. Media component: Used to evaluate the most appropriate media to delivery the content Learning environment component: Evaluates the learning environment (synchronous/asynchronous) that supports the instructional objectives Instructional component: Used to select the most appropriate instructional strategies that support the learning objectives Learning Environment Component Instructional Component Media Component Click on any of the model component links for detailed information for that specific component. Click here for a summary of each component. Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

25 Concept of Elasticity in Blended Learning
The power of blended learning is in its elasticity Depending upon the [cognitive] level of the learning objectives and the learning environment (synchronous vis-a-vis asynchronous), different combinations of instructional media and instructional strategies can support various levels of interactivity to attain the most appropriate "blend". Learning Environment Instructional As the blend changes, the model becomes "elastic", allowing the instructional designer to modify the blend to meet specific learning outcomes. Media Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

26 Elasticity in Blended Learning
What is the right mix? There may be several “blended” solutions that can meet the instructional objectives, so consider the qualitative merits of all instructional media. The ultimate goal is to increase performance through the systematic evaluation of intra- dependent variables that would result in the most appropriate integration of media. Media Learning Environment Instructional With that said, any combination of instructional delivery medium, including the traditional classroom, can result in a blended learning solution, but the instructional efficacy of the solution is most dependent upon the instructional and learning environment components. Click here for another view of the blend Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

27 Survey of Chief Learning Officers (CLOs) Use of Blended Learning
Survey from the Chief Learning Officer magazine Business Intelligence Board* The traditional classroom is still the primary delivery media (56%) but synchronous & asynchronous e-learning is increasing (24%), along with the use of m-learning (6%) * Source: Chief Learning Officer Magazine. (July, 2007). Blended Learning: Mixing Modalities. Available at: Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

28 Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning (con’t)
The greatest change in the delivery mix will continue to come via the increased adoption of e-learning and the increased use of portable technologies. IBM’s perspective on blended learning and workforce mobility Did you know that…click here Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

29 Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning (con’t)
“[There is] an important link between content type and delivery method and that student-instructor interaction receives strong consideration in determining which delivery methods get employed within an organization...” and “The value of student-to-instructor interaction remains a primary driver for both classroom-based ILT and synchronous e-learning….as well as student-to-student interaction.” CLO Magazine., July, 2007, pg Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

30 Growth of Blended Learning in Higher Education
Survey indicated that more emphasis is expected on blended learning—instruction that combines face-to-face with online offerings—than on fully online courses. Those surveyed predicted a distinct shift from about one quarter of classes being blended today to perhaps the vast majority of courses having some Web component by the end of the decade.* * Source: Kyong-Jee Kim and Curtis J. Bonk, The Future of Online Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, EDUCAUSE Quarterly, Number 4, Available at: Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

31 So…What Does it Mean? “The best current evidence is that media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in nutrition… only the content of the vehicle can influence achievement.” Richard.Clark, “Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media”. Review of Educational Research, Winter, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1983, pp "It is likely not the ‘blendedness’ that makes the difference, but rather the fundamental re-consideration of the content in light of new instructional and media choices.” Richard Voos, Blended Learning-What is it and where might it take us? Sloan-C View, Volume 2, Issue 1 – Feb, Available at: “There’s an important point that is easy to miss in the frenzy of change. Web 2.0 is not about technology, and neither is e-Learning 2.0. The human element is what makes the new Web work. Without user-generated content, the new Web would be an empty shell of fancy technologies.” e-Learning Guild, What is e-Learning 2.0? , Aug, 2008 Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

32 It’s not just about technology…it’s about people
Final Note: The Learning Mantra It’s not just about technology…it’s about people Training/education is the process Learning is the outcome The technology is the means Receiver (Learner) Sender (Instructor) Delivery System Collaboration + Teamwork = Success Focus on learning outcomes…the end result: Improving human performance Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

33 End of Presentation “One only needs two tools in life: WD-40 to make things go, and duct tape to make them stop.” G. M. Weilacher, American humorist “and, a hammer to pound things in and a screw driver to pry them out” my wife Click to go back to prior slide Click to go back to Presentation Map

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35 Learning Environment Component
A learning environment can either be synchronous or asynchronous, per se, the learning is either occurring real-time with an instructor (synchronous), or it is occurring without the presence of an instructor (asynchronous). Regardless, each learning environment has their distinct advantages and disadvantages, and the goal of developing a blended learning strategy is to leverage those specific attributes of each environment to ensure the most optimum use of resources to attain the instructional goal. Asynchronous Distance Learning Synchronous Traditional Classroom Back to Main Page Learning Environment Page Synchronous Asynchronous

36 The Synchronous Learning Environment
Asynchronous Advantages Provides for a dialectic learning environment with a high level of interactivity Encourages spontaneity of oral responses Immediate reinforcement of ideas Supports activation learning strategies such as idea generation (brainstorming) Provides for peer support (social learning theory) Allows for peer-to-peer interaction Structured learning environment Disadvantages Limited to same time Required dedicated instructor Does not provide for self-pacing May be limited to same place (albeit at a distance) High cognitive load Back to Main Page Learning Environment Page Synchronous Asynchronous

37 The Asynchronous Learning Environment
Different Time Different/Same Place Advantages Provides for more opportunity of reflective thought Not constrained by time Delayed reinforcement of ideas Provides for flexibility in delivery of content Less structured learning environment Provides for flexibility in location (home, office, etc.) Disadvantages No live interaction Longer completion times “Just-in-time” = “do-it-on-your own-time” Higher non-completion rates— pacing not optimized Back to Main Page Learning Environment Page Synchronous Asynchronous

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39 Asynchronous Instructional Media
Media Component Some instructional media may be more appropriate than others in supporting either a synchronous or asynchronous learning environment, but no single medium is inherently better or worse than another. Although the delivery medium does not affect the content, the selection of certain media may affect how you design the content based on the attributes of that specific medium. Regardless, when the “most appropriate” media are selected based on the ISD process, then learning outcomes will not be affected. Synchronicity Asynchronous Instructional Media Synchronous Instructional Media Portability Wikis, blogs, discussion boards Media are vehicles that simply deliver their contents. When developing a blended learning solution, the selection of the most appropriate media is not based solely on the attributes of the media, but the potential impact it may have on the design of the instructional components and corresponding physical learning environment. Click here for more on media mapped to the distance learning environment. Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy Portability

40 Taxonomy of Media for Blended Learning
The taxonomy is focused primarily on a dichotomous learning environment * Click on the hyperlinks for more information Synchronous Media Asynchronous Visual Only (includes graphics) Correspondence (print) Recorded Video Collaboration software/virtual technologies (wikis, blogs, discussion boards, etc.) Aural Only Audio Conferencing Recorded Audio Visual & Aural Instructional Television Satellite e-Learning Video Teleconferencing Web Conferencing (synchronous learning systems) Audiographics Computer Based Instruction Asynchronous Web Based Instruction (online training) Instructional Television Click here for note on use of Wikis & Blogs as collaborative tools * Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy Portability

41 Integrating Media: A Blended Learning Approach
Integrating any combination of synchronous/ asynchronous media with the traditional classroom results in a blended learning solution. Synchronous Media Satellite e-learning Video Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics Web Conferencing/SLS Webinars Asynchronous Media Online (Web-Based Training) Computer-based Training Video Tape/DVD Audio Tape Podcast/vodcast Blended Solution Traditional Classroom Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy Portability

42 Synchronous Instructional Media
Internet-based and delivered over the Web that enable synchronous audio and/or text chat, video, document and application sharing, whiteboards, presentations, etc. Can support synchronous oral interaction between the instructor and remote students at multiple locations as well as supporting Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE) or webinars. Due to bandwidth limitations (basically, low-bandwidth applications), high-resolution images and video may be limited. Note: The application of web conferencing in a learning environment is also known as synchronous learning systems (SLS). Synchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI)/Web Conferencing (Synchronous Learning Systems) ITV is defined as a one-way, full motion video and audio transmission of classroom instruction through a telecommunications channel such as satellite, cable TV, or Instructional TV Fixed Service (ITFS), a dedicated 2.5GHz spectrum managed by the FCC and limited to educational programming only, usually transmitted via microwave Instructional Television (ITV) Audiographics combines audio conferencing with personal computer text and graphics, allowing both voice and data to be transmitted to remote sites. Typically, a site consists of audio conference equipment, plus a large screen that serves as an electronic whiteboard. This system allows for two-way data exchange (limited to high-resolution still images only) and a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor and students at multiple sites. Audiographics An audio-only environment in which students in different locations use telephones or audio conferencing equipment to communicate with each other in real time. Supports a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor, remote students, and multiple sites but does not support visual images and graphics, and often supplemented by electronic or printed handouts. Can be integrated with other delivery systems to provide synchronous audio. Audio Conferencing Description Technology Delivery

43 Synchronous Instructional Media
towers. This specific application would not be available to instructional programming programming received via commercial cable TV). Due to the bandwidth available via satellite or ITFS, this delivery medium can emulate the live, traditional classroom environment but at a distance. ITV is sometimes referred to as Business Television (BTV), Interactive Video Teletraining, or Interactive TV, and can be transmitted via analog or digital systems. Instructional Television (ITV)- con’t Satellite e-learning represents the next generation of distributed media. Utilizing IP (Internet Protocol) as the network layer and distribution technology, it also incorporates the latest MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) video standard or latest version of Widows Media. Similar in application to ITV, it allows for the live traditional classroom to be transmitted to a remote site while synchronous oral interactivity is supported by audio teleconferencing or student response systems integrating audio and keypad technology (data interaction). Additionally, since satellite e-learning uses IP, video streaming can be utilized at extremely high bandwidths (~3.0Mbps). The IP-based video can be distributed directly to the user’s end-point and then distributed via the LAN to either a classroom or desktop computer, or both. Also, satellite e-learning can easily transmit large multimedia/web-based training modules (known as data casting) without being constrained by bandwidth, as is common with a terrestrial network. This capability allows the data to bypass the WAN by transmitting directly to the user’s end-point and then distributed locally via the LAN, thereby effectively bypassing the terrestrial infrastructure and the Internet. Satellite e-learning is also referred to as BTV/IP (Business Television/Internet Protocol). Satellite e-learning Description Technology Delivery

44 Synchronous Instructional Media
Technology Delivery Description Video Teleconferencing (VTC) VTC systems are two-way communication systems that offer both audio and video from local and remote sites and provide for synchronous interaction between the instructor and remote students at multiple locations. It allows for the instructor to observe the students at the far end (remote location), allowing the student to demonstrate an event. These systems can be terrestrial, satellite-based, or microwave-based Instructional TV Fixed Service (ITFS). Generally VTCs transmit and receive between 384Kbps – 1.5Mbps, with the next generation coders/decoders (codecs) IP enabled.

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46 When evaluating media components, wikis, blogs, and discussion boards are primarily collaborative tools and not considered stand-alone instructional media delivery options. However, they can be integrated into a course/learning module in developing a social learning structure that supports active learning and knowledge construction through peer-to-peer interaction. In a research study investigating the interplay of synchronous and asynchronous communication used in online courses, students seemed more satisfied with face-to-face courses that used asynchronous discussion boards as alternative communication media than courses that were entirely asynchronous based. Significant data were found to indicate the effect of synchronous media in a mostly asynchronous discussion forum. The ability of synchronous media to foster social presence is not shown or disproved by the research Source: A Field Study of Use of Synchronous Chat in Online Courses (2002), Retrieved from: Back to Taxonomy

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48 Asynchronous Instructional Media
Technology Delivery Description Asynchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI) On-demand, online-based instruction stored on a server and accessed across a distributed electronic network. It can be delivered over the Internet or private local area network (LANs) or Wide Area Networks (WANs) where the content is displayed utilizing a web browser. Student access is asynchronous, self-paced, and does not provide for synchronous interaction between the instructor and the remote student. High-resolution images and video may be limited due to available bandwidth. Computer Based Instruction (CBI) Interactive instructional experience between a computer and the learner where the computer provides the majority of the stimulus and the student responds. The computer is the storage and delivery device with all content resident on the student’s computer. It provides the primary display and storage capability and can support high-resolution images and video. Correspondence (print) Entirely print-based, asynchronous and self-paced. Can be augmented through the use of multimedia CD-ROM. Instructor feedback can be facilitated through the use of . Used extensively to support other media Recorded Audio (Tape and digital broadcast) Recorded audio content—on tape or transmitted electronically—which can be used as a stand-alone delivery tool or part of a blended learning approach. Can be used as the sole means of content or as part of a blended approach. Recorded Video (Tape and digital broadcast) A method of capturing learning content on tape or as a digital file for viewing on-demand. Can be used as the sole means of content or as part of a blended approach. Often used to capture a real time event and is an effective distribution medium that supports high-resolution images and video but does not support a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor and the remote student.

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50 Portability Refers to how portable (mobile) a specific media may be, e.g., cell phones, ipods/Blackberry’s, personal DVD players, other similar wireless devices. When evaluating portability, consider symmetry, per se, the amount of information [digital bits] that flows to/from the sender and receiver in either direction. For example: Asymmetrical interaction is when the flow of information is predominantly in a single direction such as in a didactic lecture or asynchronous learning module with no interaction between the student and instructor. Conversely, in a conferencing or collaborative learning environment, the information flow is symmetrical, per se, the information flow is evenly distributed between learners and instructors and equal amounts of digital information is flowing both directions. A close relationship exists between symmetry and interactivity. The more the student-instructor interaction, the greater the need for a symmetrical delivery system. Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy Portability

51 Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical Learning Environments
When articulating a blended learning strategy, considering symmetry of the learning environment is almost as important as considering its synchronicity. If not taken into account, it may lead the course designer to make less than optimal choices in instructional media selection. High Video Conferencing Audio Conferencing Web conferencing Satellite e-learning Print Pre-recorded audio/ video (Tape/DVD) ipods/vpods/personal communication devices CBT/WBT Symmetry Click on the icon of how Merrill Lynch use of mobile learning High Low Interactivity Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy Portability

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53 Instructional Component: Variables to Consider
Multimedia (aural/visual) Rapidity of Change Instructional Objectives Content Complexity Instructional Strategies Learning Styles When developing a blended learning solution, maintaining instructional quality is paramount. Consequently, learning objectives are never compromised when developing a blended learning solution. Instructional strategies are the products of learning objectives and serve to ensure the learning objectives and facilitate the transfer of learning. Click for information on learning styles Interactivity (strategies supporting specific media) Asynchronous Synchronous Collaboration (P2P) Didactic# Collaboration (P2P) Dialectic* # Instructor-student * Instructor-student-instructor Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies

54 Note on Learning Objectives
The most significant factors in student learning are quality and effectiveness of instruction, and the most important single factor in developing a blended learning solution is the instructional objective. The level of cognitive objectives is a critical variable to consider when selecting the most appropriate media for blended learning, and generally speaking: Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels where knowledge and comprehension and repetition/drill & practice are the primary focus, and Synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels (synthesis/analysis/evaluation) where a synchronous learning environment is required to support a high level of interaction (dialog). Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies

55 What is a Learning Objective?
A learning objective (aka behavioral objective, instructional objective, enabling objective, or performance objective) is a succinct statement that describes a specific learning activity Includes a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit in order to evaluate competency Expressed in terms of the student and formulated in terms of observable behavior and the special conditions in which the behavior is manifested. Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies

56 Why Developing Learning Objectives?
The purpose of creating learning objectives is to provide a means of clarifying the instructional goal and ensure the training/education is successful. Establishes the criteria for student performance used to assess learning Used to develop instructional strategies Basis for media selection Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies

57 Types of Objectives Instructional objectives are developed from a taxonomy known as the domain of learning objectives and includes three overlapping domains: Psychomotor Affective Cognitive Demonstrated by knowledge recall and the intellectual skills: comprehending information, organizing ideas, analyzing and synthesizing data, applying knowledge, choosing among alternatives in problem solving, and evaluating ideas or actions Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies

58 Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives
A metaphor depicting the taxonomy of learning objectives can be thought as assembling blocks in building a pyramid. The knowledge and comprehension levels create the foundation from which one develops higher order thinking skills commensurate with the higher cognitive levels (analysis, synthesis,& evaluation). Doing Higher Knowing Lower Knowledge The first level of learning is knowledge. Knowledge can be characterized as awareness of specifics and of the ways and means of dealing with specifics. The knowledge level focuses on memory or recall where the learner recognizes information, ideas, principles in the approximate form in which they were learned. Comprehension Comprehension is the next level of learning and encompasses understanding. Has the knowledge been internalized or understood? The student should be able to translate, comprehend, or interpret information based on the knowledge. Application Application is the use of knowledge. Can the student use the knowledge in a new situation? It can also be the application of theory to solve a real world problem. The student selects, transfers, and uses data and principles to complete a problem or task. Analysis Analysis involves taking apart a piece of knowledge, and investigates parts of a concept. It can only occur if the student has obtained knowledge of and comprehends a concept. The student examines, classifies, hypothesizes, collects data, and draws conclusions. Synthesis Synthesis is the creative act. It’s the taking of knowledge and the creation of something new. It is an inductive process—one of building rather than one of breaking down. The student originates, integrates, and combines ideas into something new to him/her. Evaluation Evaluation is judgment or decision-making where the student appraises, assesses or criticizes on a basis of specific standards/criteria. Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies

59 Instructional Strategies
The dissemination of content through the use of instructional media is only as effective as the design of the instruction Instruction is designed to transfer knowledge from the instructor to the learner to the real-world environment. The transfer of learning is facilitated by the development of instructional strategies Certain synchronous instructional technologies may be best suited for instructional strategies that require a live and dialectic learning environment. Conversely, there are asynchronous instructional technologies that are best integrated with strategies that require asynchronous learning environment. Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies

60 Table of Instructional Strategies
Description Narration/Lecture Allows for transfer of learning through mere declaration and explication of knowledge. When interaction is available, it allows for reinforcement of behavior, spontaneous questioning, dialogue, and social interaction with immediate feedback. Note: Lecture is a very efficient strategy to transfer large amounts of content but has a high cognitive load. Demonstration Skill transfer through the depiction of procedural tasks, events, processes, etc. Role Playing Involves recreating a situation relating to a real-world problem in which participants act out various roles. Promotes an understanding of other people’s positions and their attitudes as well as the procedures that may be used for diagnosing and solving problems. Learners may assume the role of a particular character, organization, professional occupation, etc. Guided Discussion Supports a synchronous, dialectic learning environment through the spontaneous and free-flowing exchange of information. Encourages active, participatory learning that supports knowledge transfer through dialogue. Students may discuss material more in-depth, share insights and experiences, and answer questions. Simulation Replicates or mimics a real event and allows for continual observation. A simulation creates a realistic model of an actual situation or environment. Illustration Depicts abstract concepts with evocative, palpable real-world examples. Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies

61 Table of Instructional Strategies
Description Imagery Imagery is the mental visualization of objects, events, and arrays. It enables internalized visual images that relate to information to be learned. Imagery helps to create or recreate an experience in the learner’s mind. Imagery involves all the senses: visual, kinesthetic, auditory, and tactile. Modeling A contrived, simplified version of an object or concept that encapsulates its salient features. Brainstorming Brainstorming is a valid and effective problem-solving method in which criticism is delayed and imaginative ways of understanding a situation are welcomed, where quantity is wanted and combination and improvement are sought. Brainstorming can occur with individuals or in a group setting, and involves generating a vast number of ideas in order to find an effective method for solving a problem. Case Studies A problem-solving strategy similar to simulation that works by presenting a realistic situation that requires learners to respond and explore possible solutions. Drill & Practice Repetition of a task or behavior until the desired learning outcome is achieved. Allows for transfer of knowledge from working memory to long-term memory. Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies

62 Instructional Strategies Supporting Asynchronous Media
Appropriate Instructional Strategy Asynchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI) - Narration/Description (Lecture) Tutorials - Demonstrations Case Studies - Simulations Modeling - Illustrations Role Playing - Drill and Practice Computer Based Instruction (CBI) - Narration/Description Illustrations - Case Studies Simulation - Role Playing Drill and Practice - Demonstration Tutorials Correspondence (print) - Narration/Description - Case Studies - Narration Recorded Audio (Tape and digital broadcast/RSS) - Narration/Description (Lecture) Recorded Video (Tape and digital broadcast) - Illustrations Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies

63 Instructional Strategies Supporting Synchronous Media
Appropriate Instructional Strategy Audio Conferencing - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Guided Discussion - Brainstorming Audiographics - Illustrations Synchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI)/Web Conferencing - Narration/Description (Lecture) Case Studies - Discussion Demonstration Simulation Illustrations Video Teleconferencing (VTC) - Narration/Description (Lecture) Panel Discussion - Guided Discussion Simulation - Brainstorming Demonstration - Case Studies Drill and Practice Role Playing Instructional Television (ITV)/ Satellite e-learning - Narration/Description (Lecture Panel Discussion - Brainstorming Demonstration Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies

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65 Summarizing: The Media Component
While media does not affect the content, it can affect how you design the content for a specific medium Variables to consider: Media richness (motion handling, visual clarity/pixel resolution) Dispersion of workforce/distribution of content Ability to update content quickly Technological infrastructure Capital & recurring costs Bandwidth Hardware end points Portability Simplex (one-way) data vis-a-vis duplex (2-way data) Learning Environment Component Media Component Instructional Component Synchronicity Symmetry Asynchronous Instructional Media Synchronous Instructional Symmetrical Portability Asymmetrical Click here for more on distance learning environments Click here for e-learning 2.0 technologies & definitions Click here for an introduction to Media Synchronicity Theory

66 Summarizing: The Learning Environment Component
Synchronicity: Is the learning environment primarily synchronous or asynchronous or a combination of both? Variables to consider: Time & space Live interaction Collaboration Pacing Flexibility in content delivery Timeliness of completion Reinforcement of ideas (immediate vs. delayed) Reflection of ideas Distance Learning Traditional Classroom Synchronous Asynchronous Learning Environment Component Instructional Component Media Component

67 Summarizing: The Instructional Component
Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels whereas synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels. Variables to consider: Level of interactivity Spontaneity Collaboration Peer-to-peer Instructor-student (didactic) Instructor-student-instructor (dialectic) Cognitive load Reinforcement of ideas/thoughts (immediate/delayed) Rapidity of content change Complexity of content Level of cognitive objectives (click here for a brief over of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives) What about learning styles (click here)? Learning Environment Component Instructional Component Instructional Strategies Instructional Objectives Content Rapidity of Change Complexity Multimedia (aural/visual) Collaboration (P2P) Interactivity Dialectic Synchronous Asynchronous Didactic Media Component

68 Instructional TV/Satellite e-Learning Video Teleconferencing
Synchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies Instructional TV/Satellite e-Learning Video Teleconferencing Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion/ Group Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Role Playing Web Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Case Studies Simulations Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming)

69 Asynchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies
Webinars Pre-recorded video (CD/DVD, vodcast, tape) Computer-based Instruction Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/ Panel Discussion Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Simulations Role Playing Narration (Lecture) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Role Playing Drill & Practice Narration (Lecture) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Drill & Practice Correspondence Pre-recorded audio (podcast, cassette, CD) Narration (Lecture) Case Studies Drill & Practice Narration (Lecture)

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71 Portability: An IBM Workforce Mobility Perspective*
Blended learning allows companies to mix scheduled and unscheduled training modules and structured and unstructured learning experiences, as well as provide self-paced material to keep today’s learners engaged. Return to previous page * Source: On demand learning: blended learning for today’s evolving workforce, IBM Learning Solutions, September 2005, Available at:

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73 Mobile Learning: Merrill Lynch Compliance Training Delivered via BlackBerry’s*
Background. With a population of 60,000 employees, Merrill Lynch has more than 21,000 BlackBerry devices in use globally, with 500 new devices being added monthly. One of the primary advantages of using BlackBerries to delivery m-learning is that the devices are integrated within the corporate network. Goals. Enable learning outside the office during naturally occurring downtime; leverage existing BlackBerry usage habits; allow employees to complete learning in small bursts, regardless of time and place with no need for network coverage. Results. Offered 3 compliance training courses via BlackBerry for a 2 month period and achieved: Increase of 1.21% in average competency score to the control groups Attained a 12% higher completion rate at the 45-day milestone Attained an average of 45% less time in training, with some completing the training in <80% with no loss of comprehension * Source: Chief Learning Officer magazine, Merrill Lynch: Bullish on Mobile Learning, April, 2008. Return to previous page

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75 What Might Go in the Blend*
Return to previous page * Source: Allison Rossett and Rebecca Vaughan Frazee, Blended Learning Opportunities, American Management Association Special Report, 2006

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77 Distance Learning Classroom
Delivery Media Mapped to the Distance Learning Environment Distance Learning Classroom group centric (classroom environment) primarily synchronous dialectic & collaborative constrained by time & place Supporting Media Satellite e-learning Video Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics Since media are vehicles that simply deliver their contents, the selection of the most appropriate media is not based solely on the attributes of the media, but the potential impact it may have on the design of the instructional components and corresponding physical learning environment. For example, the group centric distance learning classroom is best supported by media that can provide for a dialectic and collaborative environment, but is limited by time and place, whereas portable media best supports the individual learner anytime/anyplace but with limited peer support and interaction. Virtual Classroom individual centric (office environment) synchronous & asynchronous capability mostly didactic but can support interaction constrained by time not place Supporting Media Web conferencing tools Virtual Learner Individual centric (portable to any location) primarily asynchronous primarily didactic with little/no interaction not constrained by time & place Supporting Media Mobile devices Return to previous page

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79 Distance Learning Classroom
Delivery Media Mapped to the Distance Learning Environment Distance Learning Classroom group centric (classroom environment) primarily synchronous dialectic & collaborative constrained by time & place Supporting Media Satellite e-learning Video Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics In a group centric distance learning classroom, the most appropriate media are those that can provide for a dialectic and collaborative environment but maybe constrained by time and place. However, portable media best supports the individual learner anytime/anyplace but with limited peer support and interaction. Virtual Classroom individual centric (office environment) synchronous & asynchronous capability mostly didactic but can support interaction constrained by time not place Supporting Media Web conferencing tools Virtual Learner Individual centric (portable to any location) primarily asynchronous primarily didactic with little/no interaction not constrained by time & place Supporting Media Mobile devices Return to previous page

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81 Teaching with Instructional Television (ITV)--Did you Know…
There is a tendency to regard the future of distance learning as belonging solely to online or web classes. However, some researchers have found that courses offered in ITV were sometimes preferred by students even when the same course was offered online. Also, the visual and interactive nature of instructional television benefited students and that student satisfaction with ITV has been generally confirmed. Teaching with ITV (Jan, 2008). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning: Return to previous page

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83 Media Synchronicity Theory*
Click for Glossary Media Synchronicity Theory* Media synchronicity theory is primarily focused on groups and proposes that a set of media capabilities are important to group work, and that all tasks are composed of two fundamental communication processes (conveyance and convergence). Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes (i.e., tasks) as proposed by media richness theory. The theory postulates it is possible for one medium to possess different levels of a communication capability depending upon how it is configured and used. Media possess many capabilities, each of which may be more or less important in a given situation. The "richest" medium is that which best provides the set of capabilities needed by the situation: the individuals, task, and social context within which they interact (Note: richness applies to the message/content, not the richness of the visual media). Thus, concluding that face-to-face communication is the "richest" media is inappropriate. “Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes as tested in examinations of media richness theory.” * Source: Alan R. Dennis, Alan R., Valacich, Joseph S., (1999), Rethinking Media Richness: Towards a Theory of Media Synchronicity, Retrieved from: Return to Summarizing the Media Component

84 Return to Summarizing the Media Component
Media Synchronicity Theory: Dimensions of Task Functions, Communication Processes, and Media Characteristics “Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes as tested in examinations of media richness theory.” * Source: Alan R. Dennis, Alan R., Valacich, Joseph S., (1999), Rethinking Media Richness: Towards a Theory of Media Synchronicity, Return to Summarizing the Media Component

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86 e-Learning 2.0 Technologies
Wikis Blogs Podcasts Vodcasts Immersive learning environments, e.g., multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) Note: Wikis & blogs are primarily collaborative tools and not instructional media used to deliver content Definitions* Web 2.0: The stage of the WWW where the Internet has become a platform for users to create, upload, and share content with others, versus simply downloading and consuming content.” e-Learning 2.0: “The idea of learning through digital connections and peer collaboration enhanced by technologies driving Web 2.0. Users/learners are empowered to search, create, and collaborate in order to fulfill intrinsic needs to learn new information.” *Source: e-Learning Guild Research Report on e-Learning 2.0—Learning in a Web 2.0 World, Sep 2008 Return to previous page

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88 Virtual worlds are online, computer-generated simulations of simulated environments where users guide their "avatar," or digital representation of their physical selves, to accomplish various goals. Typical virtual world activities include meeting and socializing with other avatars, buying and selling virtual items, playing games, etc. Virtual worlds combine both synchronous capabilities (audio, text chat, whiteboards), as well as asynchronous capabilities (static text, embedded learning modules, learning objects, etc.). Within the context of the evolution of the Internet from Web 1.0 to Web 3.0, Virtual worlds--especially the 3D kinds--are classified under the Web 3.0 category because of their profound ability to integrate multiple types of content, information sources, and feeds into one highly engaging and interactive format. Return to previous page For information on virtual worlds used in the Federal Government: Federal Consortium on Virtual Worlds. Hosted by National Defense University (NDU), Information Resources Management College (IRMC):

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90 Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives
Doing A metaphor depicting the taxonomy of learning objectives can be thought as assembling blocks in building a pyramid. The knowledge and comprehension levels create the foundation from which one develops higher order thinking skills commensurate with the higher cognitive levels (analysis, synthesis,& evaluation). Knowing Knowledge The first level of learning is knowledge. Knowledge can be characterized as awareness of specifics and of the ways and means of dealing with specifics. The knowledge level focuses on memory or recall where the learner recognizes information, ideas, principles in the approximate form in which they were learned. Comprehension Comprehension is the next level of learning and encompasses understanding. Has the knowledge been internalized or understood? The student should be able to translate, comprehend, or interpret information based on the knowledge. Application Application is the use of knowledge. Can the student use the knowledge in a new situation? It can also be the application of theory to solve a real world problem. The student selects, transfers, and uses data and principles to complete a problem or task. Analysis Analysis involves taking apart a piece of knowledge, and investigates parts of a concept. It can only occur if the student has obtained knowledge of and comprehends a concept. The student examines, classifies, hypothesizes, collects data, and draws conclusions. Synthesis Synthesis is the creative act. It’s the taking of knowledge and the creation of something new. It is an inductive process—one of building rather than one of breaking down. The student originates, integrates, and combines ideas into something new to him/her. Evaluation Evaluation is judgment or decision-making where the student appraises, assesses or criticizes on a basis of specific standards/criteria. Continuum of Cognitive Domain Objectives Lower Higher Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Return to prior page

91 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy
Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives Mapped to Instructional Media* Learning Environment Instructional Media Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Synchronous Web Conferencing Audiographics Satellite e-Learning Audio/video teleconferencing Creating (Evaluation) Evaluating (Synthesis) Analyzing (Analysis) Applying (Application) Understanding (Comprehension) Remembering (Knowledge) Complex Simple Asynchronous Web-based Training (WBT) CBT Instructional TV (ITV) Pre-recorded audio/video (CDs/DVDs, video/audio tapes/iPods) Correspondence * Adapted from John Lasseter’s media selection table Return to prior page

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93 What are Learning Styles/Cognitive Styles?
Cognitive style is viewed as a bipolar dimension representing a person's typical or habitual mode of problem solving, thinking, perceiving and remembering; considered stable over time, and related to theoretical or academic research. Learning style entails many elements, are related to practical applications, and usually not “either-or” extremes. Learning styles are characterized by how information is preferentially perceived (sensory or intuitive), organized (inductive or deductive), and processed (active or reflective), and modality is preference (visual, aural, or kinesthetic). What cognitive science has revealed is learners differ in their abilities with different modalities, but teaching to a learner’s best modality doesn't affect his/her educational achievement. What does matter is whether the learner is taught in the content's best modality. All students learn more when content drives the choice of modality. The majority of research does not support a significant statistical relationship between learning/cognitive styles and learning outcomes, and postulates learning/cognitive styles have <5% affect on the variability in learning (Note: Prior knowledge and motivation account for ~70% of the variability in learning). Source: Willingham, Daniel. Do Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learners Need Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Instruction? American Educator, Summer Available at: Return to Prior Page

94 Different Learning/Cognitive Styles*
Research has identified over 71 different types of learning styles, e.g., Field Dependence-Independence (Witkin, 1962); Holist-Analytic & Verbal-Imagery (Riding, 1991); Impulsivity-Reflectivity (Kagan, 1965); Leveler-Sharpener (Holzman & Klein, 1954); Simultaneous-Successive (Des, 1988); Diverging-Converging (Hudson, 1966); Tolerant- Intolerant and Flexible control vs. Restructuring (Gardner, 1959); Sensory modality preferences (Bartlett, 1932), sensory (visual, aural, kinesthetic), etc. Thirteen major learning styles models have been categorized: Allinson & Hayes’ Cognitive Styles Index (CSI); Apter’s Motivational Style Profile (MSP); Dunn & Dunn VAK instruments of learning styles; Entwistle’s Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST); Gregorc’s Mind Styles Model and Style Delineator (GSD); Herrmann’s Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI); Honey and Mumford’s Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ); Jackson’s Learning Styles Profiler (LSP); Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (LSI); Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); Riding’s Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA); Sternberg’s Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI); and Vermunt’s Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) Low validity and reliability scores of the instruments used to identify specific learning styles raise serious doubts about their psychometric properties. Sources: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. The Learning and Skills Research Centre, Learning and Skills Council, Department for Education and Skills, UK (2004). Available at Cognitive Styles and Distance Education, Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume II, Number III, Fall1999. Available at: Return to Prior Page

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96 What are Learning Styles/Cognitive Styles?
Cognitive style is viewed as a bipolar dimension representing a person's typical or habitual mode of problem solving, thinking, perceiving and remembering; considered stable over time, and related to theoretical or academic research. Learning style entails many elements, are related to practical applications, and usually not “either-or” extremes. Learning styles are characterized by how information is preferentially perceived (sensory or intuitive), organized (inductive or deductive), and processed (active or reflective), and modality is preference (visual, aural, or kinesthetic). What cognitive science has revealed is learners differ in their abilities with different modalities, but teaching to a learner’s best modality doesn't affect his/her educational achievement. What does matter is whether the learner is taught in the content's best modality. All students learn more when content drives the choice of modality. The majority of research does not support a significant statistical relationship between learning/cognitive styles and learning outcomes, and postulates learning/cognitive styles have <5% affect on the variability in learning (Note: Prior knowledge and motivation account for ~70% of the variability in learning). Source: Willingham, Daniel. Do Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learners Need Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Instruction? American Educator, Summer Available at: Return to Prior Page

97 Different Learning/Cognitive Styles*
Research has identified over 71 different types of learning styles, e.g., Field Dependence-Independence (Witkin, 1962); Holist-Analytic & Verbal-Imagery (Riding, 1991); Impulsivity-Reflectivity (Kagan, 1965); Leveler-Sharpener (Holzman & Klein, 1954); Simultaneous-Successive (Des, 1988); Diverging-Converging (Hudson, 1966); Tolerant- Intolerant and Flexible control vs. Restructuring (Gardner, 1959); Sensory modality preferences (Bartlett, 1932), sensory (visual, aural, kinesthetic), etc. Thirteen major learning styles models have been categorized: Allinson & Hayes’ Cognitive Styles Index (CSI); Apter’s Motivational Style Profile (MSP); Dunn & Dunn VAK instruments of learning styles; Entwistle’s Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST); Gregorc’s Mind Styles Model and Style Delineator (GSD); Herrmann’s Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI); Honey and Mumford’s Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ); Jackson’s Learning Styles Profiler (LSP); Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (LSI); Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); Riding’s Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA); Sternberg’s Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI); and Vermunt’s Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) Low validity and reliability scores of the instruments used to identify specific learning styles raise serious doubts about their psychometric properties. Sources: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. The Learning and Skills Research Centre, Learning and Skills Council, Department for Education and Skills, UK (2004). Available at Cognitive Styles and Distance Education, Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume II, Number III, Fall1999. Available at: Return to Prior Page

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99 What are Instructional Strategies?
Instructional strategies focus on the delivery of knowledge, while cognitive strategies focus on how the learner processes the knowledge. Instructional strategies describe the general components of a set of procedures used to enable students’ mastery of learning outcomes. Instructional strategies are developed in support of the instructional goal and specific learning objectives The instructional strategy is a product that can be used for: Prescription to develop instructional materials Framework by which to develop student/group exercises/activities Media selection Return to Prior Page

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101 Instructional Media Selection Matrix
Synchronous Learning Environment Start Is a synchronous learning environment required? No Yes Asynchronous Learning Environment Is there a visual requirement? Yes No Audio Conferencing Is there a requirement for the student to demonstrate an event or the instructor observe the student? VTC Synchronous WBI (narrowband) Instructional TV (broadband) Audiographics Is there a requirement for video & audio? Satellite e-learning Yes No Is there a visual requirement? Is there an audio requirement? Print Video Tape Computer -Based Instruction Asynchronous WBI Instructional TV Audio Tape Is there a requirement to distribute large multimedia files to remote sites? Satellite IP (wireless) DVD/Video Tape/Ground Shipment Click to go back Instructional Media Selection Matrix

102 Asynchronous Learning Environment Synchronous Learning Environment
Start Is a synchronous learning environment required? No Yes Asynchronous Learning Environment Synchronous Learning Environment Is there a visual requirement? Yes No Audio Conferencing Is there a requirement for the student to demonstrate an event or the instructor observe the student? VTC Synchronous WBI (narrowband) Instructional TV (broadband) Audiographics Is there a requirement for video & audio? Satellite e-learning Yes No Is there a visual requirement? Is there an audio requirement? Print Video Tape Computer -Based Instruction Asynchronous WBI Instructional TV Audio Tape Is there a requirement to distribute large multimedia files to remote sites? Satellite IP (wireless) DVD/Video Tape/Ground Shipment The Concept of Synchronicity in Blended Learning

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104 Return to Presentation Map slide
Glossary Asynchronous learning environment is when communication between the instructor and the student is not real-time. Asynchronous media is a type of delivery medium that only supports communication between the sender and receive one-way, and does not occur in real time. Behavorialism (behavioral learning theory) is mostly concerned with observable output and does not place any emphasis on the social context of learning. In a behavioral model of instruction the mind is viewed as a “black box” in the sense that response to stimuli can be observed and anything that exists, exists in a certain quantity and can be measured and where conditioning refers to the strengthening of [desired] behavior which results from reinforcement. Through the use of reinforcement in a predominantly individualized system of instruction, behaviorists seek to increase the number or strength of correct student responses. Under most circumstances, behaviorism is an excellent approach for assessing a learners knowledge and comprehension of a particular subject. Cognitive Levels. In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. The six levels are: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Cognitivism (cognitive learning theory) comes from the perspective that students actively process information and that learning takes place through the efforts of the student as they organize, store, and then find relationships between information, linking old to new knowledge. Cognitive theorists believe that much learning occurs with associations through contiguity and repetition and acknowledges the importance of reinforcement. Cognitive theorists believe that human beings need to acquire and reorganize information into cognitive structures that are understandable. Note: Circa 1960, psychologists began to realize there were many aspects of learning that behavioral theorists could not account for in explaining some of the inconsistencies in learning, so cognitive theory was thrust into the forefront. However, the beginning of cognitive theory can be traced as far back as the 1920’s. Constructivism is a view that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information. Constructivist approaches to learning assume that subjectivity is critical because learners take in information and process it in unique ways that reflect their needs, dispositions, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings. The basic idea of constructivism is that knowledge must be constructed by the learner, it cannot be supplied by the teacher. Dialectic. Discussion and reasoning by dialogue as a method of intellectual investigation; in a learning environment, the inquiry method by which the instructor and student engage in question and answering. Didactic. Designed or intended to teach; intended to convey instruction and information. In a learning environment, the transfer of information is primarily one-way from the instructor to the student as in a lecture. Distance Learning. The acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated information and instruction; also, structured learning that takes place without the physical presence of the instructor. Distance Education. Institutionally based formal education where the learning group is separated and where interactive communications systems are used to connect instructors, learners, and resources. Distributed Learning: Structured learning mediated with technology that does not require the physical presence of the instructor. Distributed learning models can be used in combination with other forms of instruction or it can be used to create wholly virtual classrooms (source: DODI , June 16, 2006). e-Learning. The delivery of content via the Internet, intranet-extranet, audio and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, and CD-ROM; also, the educational content, learning services, and delivery solutions that support and enable network-based learning that is either asynchronous or synchronous; instructional content or learning experiences delivered or enabled by electronic technology. Instructional media includes all means of delivering instruction via various delivery mediums including printed material (correspondence courses) and electronic devices such as computers, cable TV, satellite, electronic whiteboards, audio/video tapes, audio and videoconferencing systems, ipods, PDAs, cell phones, etc., using either wireless or wireline technologies. Instructional technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. Educational Technology a more broader term but used synonymously with IT. Pedagogy. The activities of educating or instructing or teaching; activities that impart knowledge or skill. Synchronous learning environment supports live (real time), two-way oral and/or visual communications between the instructor and the student. Synchronous media is any type of delivery medium that supports real time communication both ways between the sender and receive. 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