Presentation on theme: "1 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna From bilingualism to heteroglossia: changing paradigms in sociolinguistic research Presentation at the seminar Gränser."— Presentation transcript:
1 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna From bilingualism to heteroglossia: changing paradigms in sociolinguistic research Presentation at the seminar Gränser förr och nu, Helsinki 25/10/2010 Univ.-Prof. Dr. Brigitta Busch, Department of Linguistics, University of Vienna
2 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna I. The territorial approach: languages as categories II. The speaking subject: experiencing language and the representation of heteroglossic repertoires III. Heteroglossic spaces: linguistic practices and local language regimes
3 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna The territorial approach: languages as categories Linguistic minorities in different situations: minorities with a kin state - without a kin state minorities within one single state - in several states minorities with in a compact settlement area - in dispersed settlement with recognized status - without official status forming regionally/locally a majority...
4 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna The territorial approach: languages as categories European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (Art. 1 a and b) a. "regional or minority languages" means languages that are: i. traditionally used within a given territory of a State by nationals of that State who form a group numerically smaller than the rest of the State's population; and ii. different from the official language(s) of that State; a. "territory in which the regional or minority language is used" means the geographical area in which the said language is the mode of expression of a number of people justifying the adoption of the various protective and promotional measures provided for in this Charter;
5 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Minority with a kin state: the Austro-Slovenian border region 1918drawing of the border minorities on either side; two centres with their standard; the option of Windisch as a mixed dialect 1945border between two different ideological systems; dialects seen as Carinthian, standard as nationalist and communist 1980sincreasing transborder contacts, economic interests, increasing number of learners of Slovenian 1990sarrival of refugees from former Yugoslavia, later also from other countries, linguistic diversification 2004Slovenia joins the EU; German and Slovenian official languages in the EU (Schengen border until 2007)
6 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Decreasing number of speakers - increasing number of learners Percentage 0% - 5% 05% - 10% 10% - 20% 20% - 30% >30% Census 2001 year 1975/76 13% 1985/8622% 1995/9626% 2005/0641% 2007/08 44% children in bilingual classes year 191066.463 193424.857 193943.179 195142.095 198116.552 200112.554 number of speakers
7 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Territorial concept linked to the notion of a (homogenous) autochthonous ethnic group speakers within this group divided into a core and a marginal circle orientation towards two competing centres (conflict of loyalty) – from the perspective of the centres: suspicion of linguistic equivocation undermining the monolingual paradigm; outpost defending (cultural / territorial) claims based on linguistic belonging – from the perspective of the periphery: fear of being monopolized and abandoned by the respective centres on the linguistic level: – languages seen as bounded units (language ideologies) – bilingualism seen as additive monolingualism – dichotomy pure - impure – the ideal of the unattainable native speaker across the border in the motherland – deficit oriented view
8 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Deterritorialisation (language under the condition of globalisation) speakers on the move: – migration and mobility also as a temporary phenomenon – multiple local affiliations, – translocal links... minority language speakers beyond the bilingual area (especially in urban centres) linguistic diversification of the bilingual area new speakers of minority languages (non-ethnic)
9 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna I.The speaking subject: experiencing language and the representation of heteroglossic repertoires Multimodal biographic approach: de-constructing preconceived linguistic categories and dichotomies
10 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Language portrait: exploring the entire linguistic repertoire as a resource One leg is German (my father) and one leg is Slovenian (my mother), these are the two pillars. In these there is also the Selsko (Slovenian) dialect and the Carinthian dialect and these are actually more important. In my head German prevails, because in Carinthia almost everything is German, the media and so on. Therefore I mainly think in German, unfortunately. On my shoulders I have Italien and English (learnt in school). This rucksack I can unpack when I need it, but it is also a burden on the shoulders. Podjunsko dialect I speak with my cousin to tend him my hand. Imitations (parody) and my own mixtures and creations, the open space is for things to come. Roman, 17 yrs.
11 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Experiencing heteroglossia: a multimodal approach Research group Spracherleben University of Vienna www.cis.or.at Krumm 2001 Busch 2006, 2008 Motives deconstructing categories conceiving language as split into bounded and countable units overcoming the concept of a mono- or bilingual norm biography exploring the complexity of heteroglossic biographies and Life- Worlds exploring dispositions, experiences, practices and desires linked to language valorizing the entire language repertoire
12 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna New speakers of the minority language German Slovenian po domače English French Italian (right arm) Evi began to learn Slovenian after her marriage 20 years ago, studies now Slovenian at university..., dass ich zuerst den gailtaler dialekt kennengelernt hab und dann auf der andere seite durch freunde sozusagen auf der italienischen seite den dialekt, das ist auch eine slowenische minderheit noch, das ist der uggowitzer dialekt und die zwei kann ich also sehr gut. (...) wenn ich switche, dann zwischen deutsch, slowenischen dialekt, uggowitzer dialekt und zwischen der slowenischen hochsprache. Ich find das eigentlich sehr spannend, dass, dass es/ im kopf, da gehen sie schon ein bisschen ineinander über...., that I learnt first the gailtal dialect and then on the other side through friends so to say, the dialect of the italian side, there is another slovenian minority, the uggowitz dialect and these two I do speak really well. (...) when I switch, then between german, slovenian dialect, uggowitz dialect and the slovenian standard language. I think this is really interesting, that, that this/ in the head, there they are already blending a little.
13 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna New speakers of the minority language Serbocroatian Russian English Slovenian German Ljubo came as a refugee in the 1990ies from Bosnia, learnt first Slovenian and then German meine ersten kontakte mit der slowenischen sprache waren in XXX, wo ich mit den einheimischen/ oder besser gesagt, wo die einheimischen mit uns hauptsächlich im slowenischen dialekt kommuniziert haben, weil wir kein deutsch konnten. my fist contact with the slovenian language was in XXX, where I communicated/ or rather where the locals communicated with us mainly in the slovene dialect, because we did not speak german. in diesem land durch die deutschkenntnisse ist das schon ein schutz. ja, weil jeder, der die sprache nicht so gut bewältigen, wird diskiminiert. in this country through the knowledge of geman is a protection. yes, because everyone who cannot speak the language well, is being discriminated.
14 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Valorising linguistic resources Tim attended bilingual primary and secondary school Eine Zeit lang hab ich sehr versucht, mich zu identifizieren mit dem Slowenischen. (...) Und da hab ich mir auch immer gewünscht, dass ich den Dialekt könnte und --- Verstehen können hab ich ihn gut, aber wenn ich probiert hab ihn zu reden, bin ich eher belächelt worden. For some time I tried hard to identify with Slovenian. (...) And then I always wanted to know the dialect and --- I could understand it well, but when I tried to speak it, I was smiled at. Dann haben wir unsere komplett eigene slowenische Sprache entwickelt. Und da hat dann Dialekt keine Rolle gespielt. Und - -- eeh, --- also das war eine Sprache, die nirgends irgendwie gesprochen wird sonst. Das war wirklich nur für uns aus der Klasse und die Parallelklasse. Man hat problemlos codegeswitcht. Then we developed our completely own Slovenian language.And then the dialect did not play a role anymore. And --- eeh, --- yes, this was a language which was nowhere else spoken. That was only for us in our class and for the parallel class. We code switched without any problems. German Slovenian French English Swedish Latin Malagasy Spanish
15 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Concept of linguistic/communicative repertoire marks a change in perspective from particular languages/varieties to groups of speakers and their linguistic choices (Charles Ferguson & John Gumperz, 1960) designates the totality of linguistic and communicative possibilities that speakers can refer to in specific contexts includes registers, styles, dialects etc. as well as the pragmatic knowledge of their adequate use refers to Husserl ʼ s phenomenological approach which foregrounds the notions of »experience« (Erleben) and »lifeworld« (Lebenswelt) brings back the speaking subject into linguistics »What is needed is a sociolinguistics of speech and of resources, of the real bits and chunks of language that make up a repertoire, and of real ways of using this repertoire in communication.« (Dell Hymes 1996)
16 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Heteroglossic repertoires evolves by experiencing language in interaction on a emotional and cognitive level draws on a broad range of earlier voices, discourses and codes (heteroglossia, Mikhail Bakhtin) it is not only a cognitive phenomenon but is inscribed into the body (corporal memory, Maurice Merleau-Ponty) corporality includes traces of hegemonic power relations (habitus, Pierre Bourdieu) reverts back to the conditions of its evolution and forward to a contingent space of potentialities including imaginations and desires (Claire Kramsch, Rita Franceschini)
17 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Problems in connection with biographic narratives driven by genre expectations and conventions of narration (linear, time axis, retrospective, dramatization...) autobiographic accounts linked to techniques of the self (Foucault): confession as the expression of a deep inner self; construction of diachronic continuity and synchronic coherence the narrative is not the reconstruction of a life history but a situational presentation of self (Goffman) the narrative reverts to other texts and discursive constructions in order to relate the narrated biography to a larger (social) context, reinterpret and legitimize it foregrounds the subject and not the interaction in which positioning is realized
18 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Expanding the biographic approach combining biographical narratives with: ethnographic observation to understand to relate the narrative form of sense-making with practices of acting in specific contexts critical discourse analysis to understand how personal narratives are related to or shaped by discourses structuring the public realm narration analysis to understand how the narrative evolves in the interaction between (present and absent) participants creative visualizations to supply a mode of sense-making less linked to genre expectations and conventions
19 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna III. Heteroglossic spaces: linguistic practices and local language regimes Linguistic landscape Slovenian secondary school Klagenfurt / Celovec
20 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Linguistic landscape Slovenian secondary school Klagenfurt / Celovec
21 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Linguistic landscape Slovenian secondary school Klagenfurt / Celovec
22 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Local language regimes (interactional regimes, communicative regimes) A language regime can be described as a set of constraints on individual language choices. As I understand the term, it consists of habits (Oakeshott 1991), legal provisions (Gauthier et al. 1993), and ideologies (Kroskrity 2000). These three components interact in complex ways. Coulmas (2005: 12) By interactional regime, we understand minimally a set of behavioral expectations regarding physical conduct, including language. (...) Some of these regimes are elaborations of longestablished old regimes, which have been challenged by conditions of ethnolinguistic diversity. (...) Other regimes have surfaced locally as a direct result of contact (...) They often originate exclusively in practice, in the sense that they are quite removed from state-supported institutions with an official language policy. (...) We insist on using the term regime in order to emphasize not only a condition, a normative, taken-for-granted dimension which regiments situated understandings of language, but also the importance of inequality of resources and power. Regimes involve the production of subjectivities and may be transitory. Blommaert, Collins, Slembrouck (2005: 211f)
23 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Local language regime relies on: frames and frame analysis (Irving Goffman) for the analysis of interactional regimes understanding spaces as interactional arenas of (organized) activities unfold Interactions follow certain scripts (parts, routines) in which the kind of exchange that is taking place is constantly negotiated and renegotiated Frame analysis allows to understand interaction by distinguishing between dominant/subordinate, frontstage/backstage, focused involvement/loose co-presence etc. concept of language ideologies: for linguistic anthropology it is increasingly important to understand how microprocesses and their analysis (speech events, sequencing...) are related to political-economic macroprocesses. (...) Regime evokes the display of political domination in all its many forms, including what Gramsci distinguished as the coercive force of the state and the hegemonic influence of the state-endorsed-culture of society. Paul Koskrity (2000: 3) Ideology is discovered in metalinguistic and metapragmatic discourse, in linguistic practice itself and in the regimentation of of language use through more implicit metapragmatics that indicate how to interpret that language-in-use. Kathryn Woolard (1998: 9)
24 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Language and space Linguistic market - value attributed to codes, languages...; space constituted by symbolic power (Pierre Bourdieu 1982) Place and non-place - anthropological places as formed by individual identities, through complicities of language, local references, the unformulated rules of living know-how (...) defined as relational, historical and concerned with identity". Non-places, in contrast, "a world surrendered to solitary individuality, to the fleeting, the temporary and ephemeral" while theycreate solitary contractuality" (Marc Augé 1995) Power geometries of space - feminist perspective; notion on Out of place - disturbing practicies (Doreen Massey) Heterotopia - is capable of juxtaposing in a single real place several spaces, several sites with their respective discursive practices, that are in themselves incompatible; a kind of counter-space (Michel Foucault 1984)
25 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Nexus of practice We will use the term 'nexus of practice' to focus on the point at which historical trajectories of people, places, discourses, ideas, and objects come together to enable some action which in itself alters those history trajectories in some way as these trajectories emanate from this moment of social action. Scollon & Scollon 2004
26 Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna Heteroglossic space in the Bakhtinian sense: Heterogeneity of individual voices (social background, age, gender, style, self- representation...) heterogeneity of discourses (linked to social movements, music scenes, commercial enterprises, ethnic organizations with their geographic referential contexts...) heterogeneity of linguistic practices (language purism, standard languages, jargons, language crossing...)