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Using Pressure and Gradient to Derive Microphone Patterns Audio Days 2011 Paris David Josephson Josephson Engineering, Inc. Santa Cruz, California
Scalars and Vectors nondirectional/pressure/scalar –responds to pressure from any direction directional/pressure-gradient/vector –responds to difference in pressure between two points
Pressure Gradient Response
Cardioid pattern + =
What is B-Format? signal format for Ambisonics W – omnidirectional (pressure) X – figure-8 ( cos ) facing front-to-back Y – figure 8 facing side-to-side Z – figure 8 facing up-to-down
Soundfield B-format process Four subcardioid capsules in tetrahedral array (LFU, LBD, RBU, RFD) W = LFU + LBD + RBU + RFD X = - LFU + LBD + RBU - RFD Y = - LFU - LBD + RBU + RFD Z = - LFU + LBD - RBU + RFD (Craven and Gerzon 1974, scaling and equalization omitted)
Native B-format omnidirectional mic produces W signal front-facing bidirectional mic produces X side-facing bidirectional mic produces Y (optional) up-down mic for Z
Set pattern with ratio of W to X a + b cos( ) a... is how much of the omni (W) b... is how much of the fig-8 (X)
+= X + Y = another figure-8...pointed at an angle corresponding to the ratio of X and Y
5.1 from B-format FC = aW + bX (where a/b sets pattern) FL = aW + bX + cY FR = aW + bX - cY SL = aW - bX + cY SR = aW - bX - cY LFE = low passed W
W X Y
Billy Pitrone – guitar and vocal Sarah Eblin – bass and vocal Pete Hicks – fiddle, mandolin and vocal Rob Horgan – banjo Recorded by Dave Nielsen at Rancho Armadillo, Santa Cruz
Anna Clyne, rewind Cabrillo Music Festival Orchestra, Marin Alsop, director Recorded by Cuco Daglio
Microphone Characteristics and Specifications Audio Days 2011 Paris David Josephson Josephson Engineering, Inc. Santa Cruz, California.
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