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A Brazilian Experience in Aeronautic

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1 A Brazilian Experience in Aeronautic
Engineering Teaching

2 CEA foundation and CB.1 Gaivota
September Foundation of CEA – Center for Aeronautical Studies – in order to support aircraft development at UFMG – Federal University of Minas Gerais – (design, calculation and construction). In 1964, the sailplane CEA101-CB.1-Gaivota (designed by Prof. Cláudio P. Barros) was finished and made its first flight. Some students (mechanical engineering students) worked in the construction. The entire design was based on Prof. Stelio Frati design methodology. Wing Span 12.0 m Length 5.25 m Empty Weight 130 kgf Max. Weight 210 kgf L/Dmax 20:1 Vymin 0.89 m/s

3 CB.2 Minuano 1969 Motivated by the knowledge acquired through the experience with Gaivota, the design of CEA102-CB.2-Minuano begins. It was to become the most efficient sailplane in Brazil (L/Dmax=38), making use of flaps, retract landing gear, combining aluminum, wood, and honeycomb in its structure. In 1975, Minuano made its first flight test. This was the cornerstone for the establishment of the Aeronautical Engineering Course at UFMG. Wing Span 15.0 m Aspect Ratio 22 Empty Weight 190 kgf Max. Weight 280 kgf L/Dmax 38:1 Vymin 0.90 m/s

4 Aeronautical Engineering Course
1976 The emphasis in Aeronautical Engineering linked to the Mechanical Engineering Course was created and recognized by the official Brazilian Education Department. Besides the Mechanical Engineering classes, the Aeronautical student has to enroll in the following classes: - Introduction at Aeronautical Technology - Aerodynamics - Aircraft Performance - Aircraft Stability and Control - Aircraft Maintenance - Aircraft Systems - Structures Theory applied to Aircrafts I - Structures Theory applied to Aircrafts II - Aircraft Design I - Aircraft Design II - Flight tests

5 Aeronautical Engineering Course
In its first years of activity, the Aeronautical Engineering emphasis had the support of experts from EMBRAER (Brazilian Aeronautical Industry), CTA (Brazilian Aerospace Technology Center), and the Brazilian Air Force. The current teaching staff is composed entirely of former in-house under-graduate students. Approximately 300 aeronautical engineers have graduated from this university. And over half of those are currently working at EMBRAER. Two basic philosophies apply to this course: - Basic knowledge in mechanical engineering and aeronautical engineering are the same, and; - In order for a solid education in aeronautical engineering to take place it is desirable to have student participation in product development.

6 technical responsibility.
Aeronautical Engineering Course Due to the fact that the core for both mechanical and aeronautical engineering is the same, a merger of aeronautical students in mechanical engineering classes has the following advantages: - reduction in teaching costs; - access to Mechanical Engineering Department infrastructure, which is already diverse and well established; - acquisition of open-minded knowledge by students. Student participation in product (airplanes) development promotes: creativity; entrepreneur sense; management skills; teamwork abilities; technical responsibility.

7 CB.7 Vesper Development of CEA/CETEC303-CB.7-Vesper, the first aircraft from the Southern hemisphere which was totally developed in composite materials. It is a side-by-side two seat motorglider equipped with an 80hp Limbach engine and a 3-position Hoffman propeller. Germany Aerospace Institute (DLR – Braunschweig – Dipl. Ing. Armin Quast) provided technical support on composite material design and construction. In 1990 Vesper was granted an Excellence Prize at the 1st Brazilian Design Awards. Wing Span 17.5 m Length 7.97 m Aspect Ratio 17.1 Empty Weight 620 kgf Max. Weight 800 kgf Cruise speed 224 km/h Stall speed 78 km/h L/Dmax 31:1 Take-off distance 420 m Landing distance 350 m

8 CB.9 Curumim Development of the light airplane CEA205-CB.9-Curumim, equipped with a 64hp Rotax engine with a fixed pitch propeller. This aircraft gave CEA its second Excellence Prize at the 2nd Brazilian Design Awards (1992). Currently, this aircraft has been used for student introduction in flying skills and flight tests procedures. The teaching of aircraft development has profited through the involvement of students in these activities. Wing Span 14.0 m Length 7.36 m Aspect Ratio 11.95 Empty Weight 285 kgf Max. Weight 410 kgf Cruise speed 128 km/h Stall speed 70 km/h ROC 2.5 m/s Take-off distance 170 m Landing distance 150 m

9 CB.9 Curumim

10 CB.9 Curumim

11 Aeronautical Engineering at Portugal
CEA Professors were invited by Beira-Interior University in Portugal to implement Aircraft Design and Aircraft Maintenance classes, applying the same philosophies used at CEA. In cooperation with the students, they developed and started the construction of the light airplane CEA/UBI-307-CB.11-Sagres. Wing Span 10.0 m Length 6.37 m Aspect Ratio 7.84 Empty Weight 300 kgf Max. Weight 510 kgf Cruise speed 220 km/h Stall speed 70 km/h ROC 4 m/s Take-off distance 120 m Landing distance 150 m

12 CB.10 Triathlon The light airplane CEA306-CB.10-Triathlon design occurs. It was used in Prof. Cláudio Barros´ PhD Thesis in order to exemplify the design methodology developed by him. Making use of a 120hp engine, Triathlon is a biplace, side-by-side, semi-aerobatic aircraft (training purpose) with retractable landing gear. All parts were drawn in detail and construction will begin soon. Wing Span 7.45 m Length 6.27 m Aspect Ratio 6.41 Empty Weight 350 kgf Max. Weight 610 kgf Cruise speed 290 km/h Stall speed 83 km/h ROC 9 m/s Take-off distance 200 m Landing distance

13 CB.10 Triathlon – Detailed Drawings

14 CEA308 Development and flight tests of the racing airplane CEA-308 takes place. In an attempt to develop a low cost high technology aircraft, CEA rises up to the challenge of building the fastest aircraft in the smallest category certified by FAI (FAI C1a0, take-off weight of less than 300kgf). In this project, new knowledge was acquired in topics such as: drag minimization, computer aerodynamics analyses, and composite materials construction. Due to engine failure, CEA-308 is currently in CEA´s workshop in order to be equipped with a new propulsion group. Wing Span 5.76 m Length 4.86 m Aspect Ratio 7.00 Empty Weight 190 kgf Max. Weight 300 kgf Cruise speed 324 km/h Stall speed 100 km/h ROC 6.7 m/s Maximum speed 353 km/h VNE 400 km/h

15 CEA308 - Construction

16 CEA308 – Flight Tests

17 CEA309-Mehari 2001 The development of CEA309-Mehari started. Mehari is a single seat unlimited aerobatic aircraft designed to have a high performance low cost operation. Designed aided by computer, built with new composite technologies, and making use of a 200hp (240hp tuned) four-cylinder Lycoming engine, Mehari will have a high power-weight ratio with low fuel consumption. Therefore it will be a good alternative for unlimited aerobatic training and competition. Wing Span 6.10 m Length 5.80 m Aspect Ratio 5.87 Empty Weight 370 kgf Max. Acro Weight 510 kgf Cruise speed 367 km/h Stall speed 105 km/h G factor limits 11g Roll Rate 420 °/sec VNE 430 km/h

18 CEA309-Mehari

19 CEA309-Mehari

20 CEA310-CB.12-Curumim II Development of the light aircraft CEA310-CB.12-Curumim II. This aircraft is an evolution of the Curumim design, which is more adequate to new Brazilian laws in this category. Wing Span 10.14 m Length 6.84 m Aspect Ratio 8.7 Empty Weight 365 kgf Max. Weight 608 kgf Cruise speed 230 km/h Stall speed 65 km/h ROC 8 m/s Take-off distance 120 m Landing distance 150 m

21 Other activities Modification and Maintenance of experimental aircraft
Capt. Gúnar Armim – Pitts S1S – Café TOKO 2000&2002 Brazilian Advanced Aerobatic Champion Aircraft Restoration

22 Other activities Computer Aerodynamics SAE Aero-Design Competition

23 Other activities Light Aircraft Experimental Flutter Analysis
Foot-Launched Ultra-light sailplane design

24 Facilities CEA Workshop equipped for aircraft construction in wood and composite materials and manufacture of mechanical parts. Welding Lab equipped with diverse welding machines and equipments for weld analysis and mechanical tests. Machinery Lab equipped with diverse machinery equipments, including a CNC machinery center. Engine Lab equipped with tools for engine maintenance, dynamometer for up to 280hp engines. Materials Lab equipped with autoclaves and presses for characteristic testing of composite materials. Computer Lab students have access to several university laboratories, including a high performance computer center (CENAPAD-MG-CO).

25 Future Facilities Propeller Test Bench special test bench for static test application on propeller driven engines of up to 200 hp. Equipped with complete instrumentation for torque and force measurement. Wind Tunnel Didactic close-circuit wind tunnel with a 0.7x0.7m test section and a 200hp engine. Hangar hangar in an airport near the university in order to support aircraft operations.

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