4 ClassificationTILLAGE CROPScereal grains, oilseeds, vegetable crops, sugar crops, fiber crops, small fruits, coarse grains, etc.
5 ALTERNATING TILLAGE CROPS hay crops, silage, green chop, “fodder”, etc. (i.e. sorghums, millet, alfalfa, small grains, grass, etc.)
6 GRASSLAND/GRAZING LAND native range/grass, forbs, sage, shrubs, legumes, etc.
7 FARMING SYSTEMSThe particular Farming System found in a country or region is the result of a unique combination of factors, many of which are causative or associative in nature (i.e. Bananas and Wheat).
8 FACTORS/CONDITIONSInfluencing/impacting the development of specific Farming Systems.Climate, Elevation, Soil, Moisture, Soil stability, Pests, Technological adaptation & feasibility, Economic infrastructure and Social Infrastructure.
10 Soil stability - erosion & salinity Pests - weeds, insects, diseases & predators.Technological adaptation and feasibility - equipment, cultural practices, chemicals, new cultivars, etc.
11 Economic infrastructure - market access, government regulations, transportation system & processing industry.Social infrastructure - work ethic, class/caste system, land tenure, education, diet, culture & dissemination of information.
12 MAJOR FACTORS IMPACTING THE CLASSIFICATION OF FARMING SYSTEMS ClimateLevel of TechnologyInfrastructureProduction IncentivesPolitical ConstraintsHuman Resources
13 SUB - CLASSIFICATIONVery Extensive - broad, much variation, inter cropping, strip cropping, involving several different crops or livestock species.Very Intensive - double cropping, crop rotation, crop residue management, erosion control.
14 NATURE & EXTENT OF FARMING SYSTEMS Subsistence farming - produces only enough food and fiber for individual or family needs.1) Involves the gathering/collection of food, fuel & building materials,2) Rarely ventures into situations involving commercial production,3) Requires little in the way of inputs, market access, monetary exchange, etc.Subsistence farming is generally small scale farming geared to produce many different commodities with the goal being to feed the farmers or local area. An individual growing a veggie garden and raising a few head of livestock could be viewed as a subsistence farmer.
16 NATURE & EXTENTCommercial Farming Systems - characterized by the commercial production of agricultural commodities for specific markets and capital intensive.Commercial farming is large scale farming geared to produce a specific commodity (milk, corn, soybeans, etc), with the highest possible production at the lowest possible cost being the ultimate goal.
17 TYPES OF COMMERCIAL FARMING SYSTEMS Tropical & sub-tropical plantationsTemperate zone grain productionVegetable & fruit productionLivestock productionMixed crop & livestock production
18 Sustainable Agriculture Protects soil fertilityOptimizes management & resourcesReduces the use of nonrenewable resourcesPromotes opportunities in family farmingAchieves integration of natural biological cycles & controls
19 Role of Farming System :Food security Provide balanced food, Quality food basket High productivity and enhanced farm income Effective recycling of resources Minimizing environmental pollution Employment generationWhat is Food security: Food security is defined as the balanced food supply and effective demand for food.
20 Ensuring food security to the individual wards off the gender- based intra-household discrimination .Thus food security needs to be redefined as “livelihood security for the household and all members within, which ensures both physical and economic asses to balanced diet, safe drinking water, environmental sanitation, primary education and basic health care.
21 Farming system approach What is it Farming system approach envisages the integration of agroforestry, horticulture, dairy , sheep and goat rearing, fishery, poultry, pigeon , biogas, mushroom, sericulture and by-product utilization of crops with the main goal of increasing the income and standard of living of small and marginal farmers.
23 Mono cropping, is the planting of only one crop in a piece of land year after year. IntercroppingRow intercropping - growing two or more crops at the same time with at least one crop planted in rows. Strip intercropping - growing two or more crops together in strips wide enough to permit separate crop production using machines but close enough for the crops to interact.Relay intercropping - planting a second crop into a standing crop at a time when the standing crop is at its reproductive stage but before harvesting
24 When two or more crops are grown together, each must have adequate space to maximize cooperation and minimize competition between the crops.To accomplish this, four things must be considered:special arrangement,plant density,maturity dates of the cropsplant architecture
25 INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM At present, the farmers concentrate mainly on crop production which is subjected to a high degree of uncertainty in income and employment to the farmers.In this contest, it is imperative (very important) to evolve (develop) suitable strategy for augmenting ( to increase ) the income of a farm.Integration of various agricultural enterprises viz., cropping, animal husbandry, fishery, forestry etc. have great potentialities in the agricultural economy.These enterprises not only supplement the income of the farmers but also help in increasing the family labour employment.
26 1.The integrated farming system approach introduces a change in the farming techniques for maximum production in the cropping pattern and takes care of optimal utilization of resources.2.The farm wastes are better recycled for productive purposes in the integrated system.3.A judicious mix of agricultural enterprises like dairy, poultry, piggery, fishery, sericulture etc. suited to the given agro-climatic conditions and socio-economic status of the farmers would bring prosperity in the farming.
27 Factors to be considered The following factors have to be considered while selecting IFS in rain fed areas. Soil types, rainfall and its distribution and length of growing season are the major factors that decide the selection of suitable annual crops, trees and livestock components. The needs and resource base of the farmers also decides the selection of IFS components in any farm.
28 ConclusionIntegrated farming system seems to be the answer to the problems of increasing food production , for increasing income and for improving nutrition of the small scale farmers with limited resources without any adverse effect on environment and agro- eco-system (IABM Bikaner 11/21/ )