4 IMPRESSIVE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE, BUT TOO MANY WORKERS IN ASEAN STILL HAVE POOR QUALITY JOBS AND GENDER GAPS PERSIST.
5 ASEAN integration in the global context 1. CURRENT SITUATIONASEAN integration in the global context$2.4 trillion GDP in 2013; 300 million labour force; 625 million peopleRelative resilience to global economic crises.Between , ASEAN countries grew faster than the global average.Changing trade and FDI flows.Rising FDI inflows relative to rest of the world.Rapidly growing middle class.From , 83 million workers joined the middle class; number expected to reach 144 million by 2017.But rising inequality is a major concern …
6 ASEAN integration in the global context 1. CURRENT SITUATIONASEAN integration in the global context40% of workers are in low-income agriculture.High informality, low social protection coverage.13% youth unemployment.Public social security expenditure, most recent year (per cent of GDP)
7 ASEAN integration in the global context 1. CURRENT SITUATIONASEAN integration in the global contextGender disparities persistLabour force participation rates (per cent)ASEAN employment growth higher for women than men.But gender gaps in lfpr persist: 23% in 2013.63% of women in vulnerable employment vs. 56% of men.
8 ASEAN integration in the global context 1. CURRENT SITUATIONASEAN integration in the global contextGender disparities persistAverage monthly wages by sex and wage gap (US$ and per cent)Significant gender differences in wages.In 6 of 7 countries, average wages of male workers surpass those of female workers.
9 2. Labour Migration - Average monthly wages of migrants and all residents by sex in Malaysia,
10 Intra-ASEAN Migration Shares, 1990-2013 (percent of total)Source: UNDESA, 2013
11 Intra-ASEAN share of outflow of international migrant workers 2006-2012 Note: as presented in ADB & ILO, 2014
12 Stocks of foreign workers in destination countries in South-East Asia Sources: Ministry of Manpower, Singapore; Ministry of Human Resources, Malaysia; Ministry of Labour, Thailand
13 Annual inflow of migrant workers by skill of occupation (‘000) NOTES: Malaysia covers only those residing in private living quarters. Thailand data measure those who migrated to Thailand within the previous year so may include some Thai-born or native ‘return migrants’; series break between 2009 and 2011 – figure for 2010 was interpolated assuming a linear trend.Sources: Malaysia – Department of Statistics Malaysia, Migration Survey (various); Thailand – National Statistical Office (NSO), Ministry of Information and Communication Technology, Labour Force Survey (module on migration, ) and Migration Survey (2011 and 2012).
14 3. Establishment of ASEAN Community by 2015 12th ASEAN Summit (Cebu, 13 January 2007) called for establishment of ASEAN Community by 2015 in all three pillars of ASEAN Security Community, ASEAN Economic Community and ASEAN Socio-Cultural CommunityThe ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) will establish ASEAN as a single market and production base comprising: (i) free flow of goods; (ii) free flow of services; (iii) free flow of investment; (iv) freer flow of capital; and (v) free flow of skilled labour.Source: ASEAN Secretariat
15 Legal Framework for Mobility of People ASEAN Political Security Community (APSC)- ASEAN Framework Agreement on Visa ExemptionASEAN Economic Community (AEC)- ASEAN Agreement on Movement of Natural Persons (MNP)- Mutual Recognition Arrangements (MRA)- ASEAN Qualifications Reference FrameworkASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC)- Cebu Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights ofMigrant WorkersUnder Discussion- ASEAN Business Travel Card (ABTC)Source: ASEAN Secretariat
16 4. ASEAN Declaration on Migrant Workers ASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers was issued by ASEAN Leaders on 13 January 2007 in Cebu, the PhilippinesPromote fair and appropriate employment protection, payment of wages, and adequate access to decent working and living conditions for migrant workersThe ASEAN Committee on the Implementation of the ASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers (ACMW) was mandated to draft an ASEAN instrument on the protection and promotion of migrant workers
17 ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour Open platform for the review, discussion and exchange of best practices and ideas on key issues facing migrant workers in South East Asia.Established in 2008 by the ACMW to advance the implementation of the principles of the ASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers.Tripartite - remains unique among ASEAN events in providing social partners and civil society a platform to engage with governments.Annual meetings conclude with an outcome documents called “Recommendations”Two reviews made
18 5. ASEAN Mutual Recognition Arrangements Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) enables service providers registered/certified in a signatory country to be equally recognised in other signatory countries- MRA does not warrant unrestricted free flow of foreign professionals, relevant domestic regulations and market demand still appliesCommon objectives of ASEAN MRAs:- Facilitate mobility of services professionals- Exchange of information and expertise- Promote adoption of best practices on standards and qualifications- Facilitate capacity building and technology transferSource: ASEAN Secretariat
19 Concluded MRAs in ASEAN ASEAN has concluded 7 MRAs signed by the ASEAN Economic Ministers (AEM) and 1 MRA signed by ASEAN Tourism Ministers. The 7 occupations account for only 0.3% to 1% of total employment in ASEAN.
20 ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) AQRF, a common reference framework, will function as a translation device to enable comparisons of qualifications across participating ASEAN Member States. On-going process: by 2016/2018
21 Thank you For more information, please contact: Nilim Baruah ILO Regional Office for Asia and the PacificTel: , Fax: