How did the Incas produce enough food to meet their needs? The Inca Civilization lived high in the Andes Mountains. They needed to grow enough crops to feed themselves but without travelling very far for flat land. They created Terraces An irrigation system Before this, it was impossible to grow crops on the hillside. In this way Incas altered their environment to meet their needs.
Human Environment Interaction Today Today there are three main relationships between Latin American land and humans. Agriculture Urbanization Tourism
How Agriculture Affects the Environment Slash-and-burn is a method of clearing farmland. They cut trees, brush, and grasses and burned debris to clear the field. It was first used in ancient times and is still used today. It is practiced in the Amazon River Basin in Brazil Good or bad? They are clearing irreplaceable rainforest After a few years, the soil is exhausted and the clear more and more This is one of the reasons for the steady shrinking of the rain forests.
Terraced Farming Terraced farming is an ancient technique for growing crops on hillsides or mountain slopes. Farmers cut step-like horizontal fields into hillsides and slopes which allow it to be farmed on. Good or bad? This technique reduces soil erosion. It is sustainable The Aztecs and Inca practiced it for hundreds of years.
Urbanization Throughout Latin America, people are moving from rural areas to cities. Cities have grown at such a rapid pace in Latin America that it is now as urban as The U.S. or Europe.
Most Urbanized Countries in Latin America Argentina Chile Uraguay In these countries, more than 85% of people live in Urban areas. Brazil is also highly urbanized.
What is Causing the Move? Push factors- things pushing people to leave rural areas subsistence farming Poor medical care Poor education Low-paying jobs Too difficult to own land Pull factors- things attracting people to urban areas Higher paying jobs Better schools Better medical care
7 largest cities in South America Sao Paulo, Brazil Rio Dejaneiro, Brazil Buenos Aires, Argentina Lima, Peru Bogota, Colombia Santiago, Chile Mexico City, Mexico * Largest of all
Problems with Urbanization Slums spreading larger and larger Unemployment Crime Air pollution from cars and factories Shortage of drinking water Poor infrastructure (sewers, transportation, electricity, and housing)
Tourism Tourism is a huge industry Throughout Latin America. Especially in Mexico and the Caribbean.
Advantages of Tourism Increased local employment (hotels, restaurants, boutiques, souvenir shops, cruise ships, etc) More money introduced into local economy.
Disadvantages of tourism Previously unspoiled settings are being destroyed to build resorts Congestion Pollution Resentment between local population and tourists Absentee owners send profits elsewhere but may influence local politics