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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM Chapter 1 Brief History of Computer Technology 1

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 2 The Early Period: Up to 1940 3,000 years ago: Mathematics, logic, and numerical computation Important contributions made by the Greeks, Egyptians, Babylonians, Indians, Chinese, and Persians 1614: Logarithms Invented by John Napier to simplify difficult mathematical computations Around 1622: First slide rule created

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The First Mechanical Calculator The Forefathers of the Modern Computer Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) Charles Babbage (1812-1833)

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 4 The Early Period: Up to 1940 (continued) 1672: The Pascaline Designed and built by Blaise Pascal One of the first mechanical calculators Could do addition and subtraction 1674: Leibnitz’s Wheel Constructed by Gottfried Leibnitz Mechanical calculator Could do addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 5 The Pascaline: One of the Earliest Mechanical Calculators Pascal's Arithmetic Machine used a series of gears each with ten teeth. Numbers could be entered and the gear would turn the correct number of teeth. The gear train then supplied a mechanical answer equivalent to the correct arithmetic answer. The machine could only add and subtract, while multiplication and division operations were implemented by performing a series of additions or subtractions.

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Leibniz’s Step Reckoner Leibniz developed Pascal's ideas and, in 1671, introduced the Step Reckoner, a device which, as well as performing additions and subtractions, could multiply, divide, and evaluate square roots by series of stepped additions. Pascal's and Leibniz's devices were the forebears of today's desk-top computers, and derivations of these machines continued to be produced until their electronic equivalents finally became readily available and affordable in the early 1970s. Leibniz also strongly advocated the use of the binary number system, which is fundamental to the operation of modern computers.

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 7 The Early Period: Up to 1940 (continued) 1801: The Jacquard loom Developed by Joseph Jacquard Automated loom Used punched cards to create desired pattern 1823: The Difference Engine Developed by Charles Babbage Did addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to 6 significant digits Solved polynomial equations and other complex mathematical problems

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 8 Drawing of the Jacquard Loom

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 9 The Early Period: Up to 1940 (continued) 1823: The Difference Engine Developed by Charles Babbage Capabilities: Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to 6 significant digits Solve polynomial equations and other complex mathematical problems

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 10 The Early Period: Up to 1940 (continued) 1830s: The Analytic Engine Designed by Charles Babbage More powerful and general-purpose computational machine Components were functionally similar to the four major components of today’s computers Mill (modern terminology: arithmetic/logic unit) Store (modern terminology: memory) Operator (modern terminology: processor) Output (modern terminology: input/output)

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 11 The Early Period: Up to 1940 (continued) 1890: U.S. census carried out with programmable card processing machines Built by Herman Hollerith These machines could automatically read, tally, and sort data entered on punched cards

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 12 The Birth of Computers: 1940–1950 Development of electronic, general-purpose computers Did not begin until after 1940 Was fueled in large part by needs of World War II Early computers Mark I ENIAC ABC system Colossus Z1

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Harvard Mark I Officially known as the IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) Brainchild of Howard H. Aiken The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received.

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WWII - ENIAC Was developed by [USA] Army Ordnance to compute World War II ballistic firing tables. Early electronic digital computer 1,800 Vacuum tubes ENIAC could discriminate the sign of a number, compare quantities for equality, add, subtract, multiply, divide, and extract square roots. ENIAC stored a maximum of twenty 10- digit decimal numbers.

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 15 The Birth of Computers: 1940–1950 Stored program computer model Proposed by John Von Neumann in 1946 Stored binary algorithm in the computer’s memory along with the data Is known as the Von Neumann architecture Modern computers remain, fundamentally, Von Neumann machines First stored program computers EDVAC EDSAC

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 16 The Modern Era: 1950 to the Present First generation of computing (1950-1959) Used vacuum tubes to store data and programs Each computer was multiple rooms in size Computers were not very reliable

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 17 The Modern Era: 1950 to the Present (continued) Second generation of computing (1959-1965) Replaced vacuum tubes by transistors and magnetic cores Dramatic reduction in size Computer could fit into a single room Increase in reliability of computers Reduced costs of computers High-level programming languages The programmer occupation was born

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 18 The Modern Era: 1950 to the Present (continued) Third generation of computing (1965-1975) Used integrated circuits rather than individual electronic components Further reduction in size and cost of computers Computers became desk-sized First minicomputer developed Software industry formed

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 19 The Modern Era: 1950 to the Present (continued) Fourth generation of computing (1975-1985) Reduced to the size of a typewriter First microcomputer developed Desktop and personal computers common Appearance of Computer networks Electronic mail User-friendly systems (Graphical user interfaces) Embedded systems

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 20 The Altair 8800, the World’s First Microcomputer

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 21 The Modern Era: 1950 to the Present (continued) Fifth generation of computing (1985-?) Recent developments Massively parallel processors Handheld devices and other types of personal digital assistants (PDAs) High-resolution graphics Powerful multimedia user interfaces incorporating sound, voice recognition, touch, photography, video, and television

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Introduction to Information Technology, D3 FMIPA UGM 22 The Modern Era: 1950 to the Present (continued) Recent developments (continued) Integrated global telecommunications incorporating data, television, telephone, FAX, the Internet, and the World Wide Web Wireless data communications Massive storage devices Ubiquitous computing

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