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Presentation on theme: "SALIVARY GLAND DISEASES"— Presentation transcript:

Prof. Dr. İlhan TOPALOĞLU

2 Learning goal and objectives of the lesson
Learning goal of the lesson: The learner should know the main clinical features and investigation of salivary gland disorders Learning objectives of the lesson the learner will be able to: identify the most common etiologies of salivary masses based on history and physical exam develop a clear concinse algorithm for use of diagnostic tests evaluation of salivary masses describe available therapeutic options for malignant salivary gland masses Understand how to approach the patient with “ a lump in the parotis or submandibular gland. Skill objectives of the lesson the learner will be able to take a directed history and perform a physical exam on a patient with salivary gland masses.

3 Introduction Salivary gland is any cell or organ discharging a secretion into oral cavity Major (paired) Parotid (Stensen’s duct) Submandibular (wharton’s duct Sublingual Minor Those in tongue, palatine tonsil, palate, lips and cheeks

4 Nonneoplastic Diseases of the Salivary Glands

5 Mumps Most common viral disorder of salivary glands Peak age 4-6
Prodrome period is 2-3 weeks 1 or both parotid glandes can be involved Contagious from approximately 6 days before the onset of symptoms until about 9 days after symptoms start Diagnosis: diagnosed on clinical grounds Serum amylase is often elevated

6 Mumps

7 Complications: deafness, pancreatitis, meningitis, encephalitis, orchitis or epididymitis, Oophoritis (inflammation of ovaries) Deafness generally unilateral rarely bilateral Profound (91 dB or more) sensorineural hearing loss Acute unilateral deafness occurs in about 0.005% of cases

8 No specific treatment Paracetamol for pain relief Warm saltwater gargles, soft foods, and extra fluids may also help relieve symptoms Self-limiting, and general outcome is good Most common preventative measure against mumps is a vaccination with a mumps vaccine

9 Other Viruses CMV, Coxsackievirus A, Echovirus, Influenza A, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis Virus Treatment: symptomatic for all viral diseases

10 Acute bacterial parotitis
most often caused by a bacterial infection of Staphylococcus aureus but may be caused by any commensal bacteria Peak age 50’s-60’s 30-40% in post-op patients; most commonly gastrointestinal procedures


12 Presentation: sudden, diffuse enlargement with associated induration and tenderness. Massage produces purulent saliva 20% of cases bilateral Treatment: hydration, improved oral hygiene, repeated massage of gland, IV antibiotics, warm compresses, sialogogues If no significant improvement in 24-48h, then proceed to incision & drainage OR image-guided needle aspiration

13 Chronic Nonspecific Sialadenitis
Most commonly parotid Usually from permanent damage during acute infection; occasionally from recurrent parotitis of childhood

14 Treatment 1) Underlying causes 2) Sialogogues, massage, heat, hydration, antibiotics during acute attacks 3) Periodic ductal dilatation, duct ligation, 4) Excision

15 Recurrent Parotitis of Childhood
More common in males; peak age 5-7 ¾ give role of Mumps; heredity plays no role Presentation: Usually unilateral; when bilateral, one side worse Severe pain, fever, malaise during attacks Recurs 55% of cases resolve with puberty 25% no improvement with puberty

16 Primary Tuberculosis Presentation: Unilateral parotid
May present as acute inflammatory lesion or as chronic tumorous lesion Diagnosis: AFB (acid-fast bacilli) stain of saliva and PPD test FNA (fine needle aspiration) if tumorous lesion Treatment: Anti-TB meds; excision if resistant Secondary TB: systemic dz.; submandibular and sublingual glands more often involved

17 Actinomycosis Infectious bacterial disease caused by Actinomyces species Dental work, poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, or radiation therapy causing local tissue damage to the oral mucosa Presentation: 61% visible sinus tracts; 40% adenopathy; some have purplish skin discoloration Diagnosis: culture Histology sulfur granules Treatment: Actinomyces bacteria are generally sensitive to penicillin

18 Sarcoidosis Parotid enlargement is a classic feature of sarcoidosis, but clinically apparent parotid involvement occurs in less than 10% of patients. Bilateral involvement is the rule. The gland is usually not tender, but firm and smooth. Xerostomia can occur Other exocrine glands are affected only rarely

19 Heerfordt’s syndrome (Uveoparotid fever):
1) Parotid enlargement 2) Uveitis 3) Fever 4) CN VII paralysis

20 Sjogren’s Syndrome: Sjögren syndrome also known as "Sicca syndrome"
Systemic autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack and destroy the exocrine glands that produce tears and saliva Chronic, slowly progressive, benign; 2nd most common autoimmune disease behind Rheumatoid arthritis

21 Although Sjögren's occurs in all age groups in both women and men
Nine out of ten Sjögren's patients are women Average age of onset is after menopause in women

22 Presentation Other exocrine gland involvement: dry nose, dry throat, xerotrachea, esophageal mucosal atrophy, atrophic gastritis, subclinical pancreatitis, vaginal dryness 1/3 = fatigue, low grade fever, myalgias/arthralgias Extraglandular involvement in ¼: Lungs, kidneys, vasculitis, nervous system

23 Associated risks Increased risk of 1) NonHodgkin’s Lymphoma
2) Multiple Myeloma

24 Mikulicz disease: Antiquated name for any enlargement of the parotid gland that was not tuberculosis, leukemia, or some other identifiable disease.

25 Sialadenosis (sialosis)
In this disorder, both parotid glands may be diffusely enlarged with only modest symptoms Patients are aged 20–60 years at onset, and the sexes are equally involved The glands are soft and non-tender.

26 Sialolithiasis Formation of stones in the salivary glands 80% submandibular gland, 20% parotid Only 1 stone in ¾ cases Presentation: recurrent swelling, pain worse with eating Complications: sialadenitis, ductal ectasia, and stricture

27 Diagnosis is usually made by characteristic history and physical examination
Diagnosis can be confirmed by x-ray (80% of salivary gland calculi are visible on x-ray), or by sialogram or ultrasound. 90% of submandibular stones radioopaque; 90% of parotid stones radiolucent Treatment: If near duct orifice, transoral removal of stone with marsupialization If near hilum, gland excision

28 Cysts Mucoceles vs. Mucous cysts: minor salivary glands
2-5% of all parotid lesions Congenital: dermoid cysts, ductal cysts, 1st arch branchial cleft cysts Acquired: trauma, parotitis, calculi, neoplasms

29 Neoplastic Diseases of the Salivary Glands

30 Salivary Gland Neoplasms
Benign Neoplasms Pleomorphic Adenoma Warthin’s Tumor Oncocytoma Monomorphic Adenomas Myoepithelioma Malignant Neoplasms Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Acinic Cell Carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Malignant Mixed Tumor Squamous Cell Carcinoma Clear Cell Carcinoma Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma

31 Salivary Gland Neoplasms
Diverse histopathology Relatively uncommon 2% of head and neck neoplasms Distribution Parotid: 80% overall; 80% benign Submandibular: 15% overall; 50% benign Sublingual/Minor: 5% overall; 40% benign

32 Pleomorphic Adenoma Most common of all salivary gland neoplasms
70% of parotid tumors 50% of submandibular tumors 45% of minor salivary gland tumors 6% of sublingual tumors 4th-6th decades F:M = 3-4:1

33 Pleomorphic Adenoma Slow-growing, painless mass
Parotid: 90% in superficial lobe, most in tail of gland Minor salivary gland: lateral palate, submucosal mass

34 Pleomorphic Adenoma Gross pathology Smooth Well-demarcated Solid
Cystic changes Myxoid stroma

35 Pleomorphic Adenoma Treatment: complete surgical excision
Parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation Submandibular gland excision Wide local excision of minor salivary gland Avoid enucleation and tumor spill

36 Warthin’s Tumor Papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum
6-10% of parotid neoplasms Older, caucasian, males 10% bilateral or multicentric 3% with associated neoplasms Presentation: slow-growing, painless mass

37 Warthin’s Tumor Gross pathology Encapsulated Smooth/lobulated surface
Cystic spaces of variable size, with viscous fluid, shaggy epithelium Solid areas with white nodules representing lymphoid follicles

38 Oncocytoma Rare: 2.3% of benign salivary tumors 6th decade M:F = 1:1
Parotid: 78% Submandibular gland: 9% Minor salivary glands: palate, buccal mucosa, tongue

39 Oncocytoma Presentation Technetium-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy
Enlarging, painless mass Technetium-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy Mitochondrial hyperplasia

40 Monomorphic Adenomas Basal cell, canalicular, sebaceous, glycogen-rich, clear cell Basal cell is most common: 1.8% of benign epithelial salivary gland neoplasms 6th decade M:F = approximately 1:1 Caucasian > African American Most common in parotid

41 Myoepithelioma <1% of all salivary neoplasms 3rd-6th decades F>M
Minor salivary glands > parotid > submandibular gland Presentation: asymptomatic mass

42 Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma
Most common salivary gland malignancy 5-9% of salivary neoplasms Parotid 45-70% of cases Palate 18% 3rd-8th decades, peak in 5th decade F>M Caucasian > African American

43 Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma
Presentation Low-grade: slow growing, painless mass High-grade: rapidly enlarging, +/- pain

44 Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma
Gross pathology Well-circumscribed to partially encapsulated to unencapsulated Solid tumor with cystic spaces

45 Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
Overall 2nd most common malignancy Most common in submandibular, sublingual and minor salivary glands M = F 5th decade Presentation Asymptomatic enlarging mass Pain, paresthesias, facial weakness/paralysis

46 Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
Gross pathology Well-circumscribed Solid, rarely with cystic spaces infiltrative

47 Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
Histology—cribriform pattern Most common “swiss cheese” appearance

48 Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
Treatment Complete local excision Tendency for perineural invasion: facial nerve sacrifice Prognosis Local recurrence: 42% Distant metastasis: lung Indolent course: 5-year survival 75%, 20-year survival 13%

49 Acinic Cell Carcinoma 2nd most common parotid and pediatric malignancy
5th decade F>M Bilateral parotid disease in 3% Presentation Solitary, slow-growing, often painless mass

50 Acinic Cell Carcinoma Treatment Prognosis Complete local excision
+/- postoperative XRT Prognosis 5-year survival: 82% 10-year survival: 68% 25-year survival: 50%

51 Adenocarcinoma Rare 5th to 8th decades F > M Parotid and minor
salivary glands Presentation: Enlarging mass 25% with pain or facial weakness

52 Adenocarcinoma Treatment Prognosis Complete local excision
Neck dissection Postoperative XRT Prognosis Local recurrence: 51% Regional metastasis: 27% Distant metastasis: 26% 15-year cure rate: Stage I = 67% Stage II = 35% Stage III = 8%

53 Malignant Mixed Tumors
Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma Carcinoma developing in the epithelial component of preexisting pleomorphic adenoma Carcinosarcoma True malignant mixed tumor—carcinomatous and sarcomatous components Metastatic mixed tumor Metastatic deposits of otherwise typical pleomorphic adenoma

54 Carcinoma Ex-Pleomorphic Adenoma
2-4% of all salivary gland neoplasms 4-6% of mixed tumors 6th-8th decades Parotid > submandibular > palate Risk of malignant degeneration 1.5% in first 5 years 9.5% after 15 years Presentation Longstanding painless mass that undergoes sudden enlargement

55 Carcinoma Ex-Pleomorphic Adenoma
Gross pathology Poorly circumscribed Infiltrative Hemorrhage and necrosis

56 Carcinoma Ex-Pleomorphic Adenoma
Treatment Radical excision Neck dissection (25% with lymph node involvement at presentation) Postoperative XRT Prognosis Dependent upon stage and histology

57 Carcinosarcoma Rare: <.05% of salivary gland neoplasms 6th decade
M = F Parotid History of previously excised pleomorphic adenoma, recurrent pleomorphic adenoma or recurring pleomorphic treated with XRT Presentation

58 Carcinosarcoma Gross pathology Poorly circumscribed Infiltrative
Cystic areas Hemorrhage, necrosis Calcification

59 Carcinosarcoma Treatment Prognosis Radical excision Neck dissection
Postoperative XRT Chemotherapy (distant metastasis to lung, liver, bone, brain) Prognosis Poor, average survival less than 2 ½ years

60 Squamous Cell Carcinoma
1.6% of salivary gland neoplasms 7th-8th decades M:F = 2:1 MUST RULE OUT: High-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma Metastatic SCCA to intraglandular nodes Direct extension of SCCA

61 Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Gross pathology Unencapsulated Ulcerated fixed

62 Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Treatment Radical excision Neck dissection Postoperative XRT Prognosis 5-year survival: 24% 10-year survival: 18%

63 other Clear Cell Carcinoma Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma


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