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Chapter 1: Safety & Sanitation Principles

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1 Chapter 1: Safety & Sanitation Principles
Section 1.1: Safety Basics

2 Why is an apron an important item? A chef’s hat?

3 Safe Working Conditions

4 Personal Protective Clothing
Aprons Clean Change when dirty Remove when leaving food preparation area Always remove to take out garbage Gloves Protect from injury and food contamination Wash before putting on gloves Different gloves for different purposes Disposable: Change every 4 hours or when switching activities

5 Always use dry pot holders or oven mitts to handle hot items
Always use dry pot holders or oven mitts to handle hot items. Why would you not want to use moist pot holders or oven mitts to handle hot items?

6 Personal Protective Clothing
Shoes Sturdy, slip-resistant, and closed toes Back Braces Get help lifting heavy items Occupational Back Support: back brace with suspenders Supports lower back while lifting

7 Personal Injuries Preventing Slips & Falls
Walk, never run, in the kitchen Wipe up spills immediately Use slip-resistant floor mats Wear shoes with slip-resistant soles No open-toed shoes Use safe ladders and stools Close cabinet drawers and doors Ask for help or use a cart to carry heavy objects Keep traffic paths clutter free Post appropriate wet floor signs

8 Personal Injuries Cuts – Sharp Tool Safety Guidelines
Use knives for intended use only Don’t use to open plastic wrap or boxes Cut away from your body Carry a knife down at your side, blade tip pointed toward the floor, sharp edge facing behind you Look where you reach when getting a knife Never wave hands with a knife If a knife falls, do not catch it Hold with firm grip on handle Never leave knife handle hanging over edge of surface

9 Personal Injuries Cuts – Sharp Tool Safety Guidelines
Keep handles and hands dry Keep knives sharp Use a cutting board Wear protective gloves and guards to clean commercial slicers Wash sharp tools separately—do not leave soaking in sink Throw away broken or loose knives Store knives in knife kit or rack

10 Personal Injuries Preventing Burns and Scalds
Tilt pot lids away from body Use dry pot holders or oven mitts Turn pot and pan handle away from front of range Step aside when you open an oven door Get help moving large, hot containers Follow directions to operate hot beverage machines Be careful filtering or changing oil in flyers

11 Personal Injuries Preventing Burns and Scalds
Wear appropriate safety clothing when using chemicals Keep oven doors closed Clean ovens after they have cooled Keep cooking areas, vent hoods, and other surfaces grease free Keep flammable materials away from cooking areas Unplug electrical appliances with frayed cords

12 Personal Injuries Back Injuries and Strains Before heavy lifting, ask:
Can I lift this object by myself? Is the object too heavy or too awkward to lift easily? Do I need help to move or lift the object? Is the path I must take free of clutter?

13 Personal Injuries Back Injuries and Strain
Steps to Safely Lift Heavy Objects: Bend at your knees. Keep your back straight. Keep your feet close to the object. Center your body over the load. Lift straight up and do not jerk your body. Do not twist your body as you pick up or move the object. Set the load down slowly. Keep your back straight.


15 Kitchen Equipment Safety
Get familiar with each piece of equipment before operating Lockout/tagout: all necessary switches on malfunctioning electrical equipment are tagged and locked from use Be familiar with safety features, such as guards and safety devices

16 Kitchen Equipment Safety
Cleaning and Maintenance Turn all switches to off Unplug equipment Follow manufacturer’s instructions and food establishment’s directions

17 Fire Safety Can cause substantial property and equipment damage
Cause injuries and death Many flames and high heat sources in foodservice workplaces Fires classified according to material on fire

18 Videos How to Put Out a Grease Fire Grease Fire Time Warp
Grease Fire Time Warp wide.html

19 Fire Safety Prevention
Make sure ashes are out before throwing away Be careful around gas appliances Store oily rags in closed metal containers Test smoke alarms Keep flammables away from heat sources Keep water away from electrical outlets Clean range and hoods to remove grease Keep exits unlocked and accessible from the inside

20 Fire Safety – Protection Equipment
Fire Extinguishers Type, number, and location of fire extinguishers vary One in each work area Use different chemicals to fight different fires Get inspected and tagged often To use: Hold upright and remove safety pin Point nozzle and bottom of fire and push down handle


22 How to Use a Fire Extinguisher

23 Fire Safety – Protection Equipment
Hood and Sprinkler Systems Well vented hood system removes excess smoke, heat, and vapors Clean regularly If you have a sprinkler, keep products and supplies at regulated distance

24 Fire Safety – Fire Emergency Procedures
EVERY foodservice business has procedures Employees must be familiar with these Fire exit signs must be posted in plain view Employees need to know where to meet for headcount Employees need to know where to direct customers Stay calm, call FD, communicate clearly

25 Emergency Procedures

26 Emergency Procedures Emergency: potentially life-threatening situation that usually occurs suddenly and unexpectedly Post telephone numbers of emergency services Learn basic first aid and life-saving techniques

27 First Aid Assisting an injured person until professional medical help can be provided Emergency Action Tips Check scene and stay calm Check the victim Call emergency number Use proper first aid techniques Keep unneeded people away from victim Complete an accident report

28 First Aid - Burns Remove the source of heat Cool the burned skin
Apply cold water for at least 5 minutes—not ice! Never apply ointments, sprays, antiseptics, or remedies Bandage the burn Minimize the risk of shock Elevate feet, keep victim comfortable and resting

29 Burns

30 First Aid – Wounds Types of Wounds Abrasion: scrape or minor cut
Laceration: cut or tear in the skins—can be deep Avulsions: portion of the skin is partially or completely torn off Puncture Wound: skin is pierced with a pointed object

31 First Aid – Wounds Treating Minor Wounds Wear disposable gloves
Clean the cut with soap and water Place sterile gauze over cut Apply direct pressure over the sterile gauze or bandage If bleeding doesn’t stop, raise above heart

32 First Aid – Wounds Treating Serious Wounds Wear disposable gloves
Control bleeding by applying pressure and elevating Cover with clean bandages Wash your hands thoroughly

33 First Aid – Choking Heimlich Maneuver: thrusts to abdomen to help dislodge something stuck in an airway Stand behind the victim and wrap arms around their waist – locate navel Make a first with one hand and place the thumb side of fist against the middle of the abdomen just above navel and below the bottom of the breast bone. Place other hand on top of your fist Press your hands to the victim’s abdomen—use inward and upward thrusts Repeat as many times as it takes to dislodge food

34 How to Perform the Heimlich Maneuver

35 CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: emergency care performed on people who are unresponsive Do not perform without proper training Contact Red Cross for training

36 Reports & Audits Always document details of an emergency
Can limit restaurant’s liability General safety audit: review and inspection of all safety procedures and equipment Managed by employers, carried out by workers Let a supervisor know if you find: Missing or low-charge fire extinguishers Blocked hallways or exits Missing safety information Frayed electrical cords

37 Your Task With a partner and your given example, write a short report explaining the injury, the cause of the injury, the consequences of the injury, and how the injury might have been prevented.

38 Review Questions Identify four types of personal injuries that foodservice workers must help prevent. Explain how to use a fire extinguisher properly. Describe the three types of burns. Explain how to do the Heimlich Maneuver.

39 Chapter 1: Safety and Sanitation Principles
Section 1.2: Sanitation Challenges

40 Mythbusters: 5-second Rule

41 Contamination Basics Foodborne illnesses kill thousands each year
Consumers expect a sanitary (clean) environment Contaminated: when harmful microorganisms or substances get into food

42 Contamination Basics Direct contamination: when raw foods, or plants and animals they come from, are exposed to harmful microorganisms Cross-contamination: movement of harmful microorganisms from one place to another—people cause most cases

43 Contamination Basics Foodservice works have a responsibility to prepare food in a sanitary environment Federal, state, and local health department regulations to protect consumers Hazard: source of danger Biological, Chemical, and Physical Can result in contaminated food

44 Biological Hazards Come from microorganisms, viruses, parasites, and fungi Some plants and fish carry toxins (harmful organism or substances) Pathogens (disease causing microorganisms) cause most foodborne illnesses

45 Foodborne Illness Microorganisms grow in and on food with improper handling Other common causes: cross-contamination, poor personal hygiene, and food handler illness Number of foodborne illnesses grows each year At risk: children, elderly, pregnant women, those with chronic illnesses or weakened immune systems

46 Bacteria Tiny, single-celled microorganisms Can make people very sick
Symptoms: nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, dizziness, chills, headache Multiply quickly in right conditions FAT TOM

47 FAT TOM F = Food Bacteria need food for energy to grow
A = Acidity Bacteria generally do not grow well in acidic environments T = Temperature Bacteria can thrive in temperatures between 41 and 135 degrees— some can survive freezing and cooking T = Time Although some bacteria multiply more quickly, it does take time to grow O = Oxygen Many bacteria need oxygen to live—however, some do not need oxygen to grow M = Moisture Bacteria prefer foods that are high in protein and moisture

48 Viruses Simple organisms that cause many food-related illnesses
Need a host to grow (personal, animal, or plant) Grow in host—can survive freezing and cooking Easy to transmit Usually contaminate with poor hygiene Especially susceptible: salads, sandwiches, milk, other unheated foods

49 Parasites An organism that must live in or on a host to survive
Larger than bacteria and viruses Often in poultry, fish, and meats Common parasites: protozoa, roundworms, and flatworms Eliminated by cooking or freezing Heat poultry, fish, and meats to correct internal temperature Check in multiple places on product to ensure temperature

50 Fungi Spore-producing organisms found in soil, plants, animals, water, and in the air Naturally present in some foods Some are large (mushrooms) and can be eaten Eating some types can cause stomach problems and even death

51 Molds Form of fungus Fuzzy-looking spores can be seen by the naked eye
Can grow at any temperature Often associated with food spoilage Even if only part has molded, throw it all away

52 Yeast Form of fungus Associated with bread and baking process
Helpful in this situation Unhelpful and means spoilage in some foods Sauerkraut, honey, and jelly

53 Outbreak Response Foodborne illness outbreak: when two or more people become sick after eating the same food. Outbreaks must be reported to local health department Can cost a business thousands in legal fees, insurance costs, and loss of customers Could force establishment out of business

54 Outbreak Response Laboratory analysis can tell which food made customers sick Public health department will investigate Learn how the illness was spread and how its spread can be prevented

55 Outbreak Response If you suspect an outbreak: Never admit to anything
Tell the manager or supervisor of you suspicions immediately— supervisory will contact authorities Avoid panic. Let the authorities check the situation Save any food you suspect may be contaminated. Wrap food in original container or in a plastic bag. Label: DO NOT USE!

56 Anatomy of an Outbreak

57 Chemical Hazards Cleaning supplies, pesticides, food additives, and metals Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) must be kept on file Form to show information about a substance and how to use it safely Required by Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Right to Know law

58 Cleaning Products Detergents: used to clean walls, floors, prep surfaces, equipment, and utensils Hygiene detergents: used to clean deodorize, and disinfect floors, walls, and table tops Degreasers: solvent cleaners used on range hoods, oven doors, and backsplashes to remove grease Abrasive cleaners: used to scrub off dirt or grime that can be difficult to remove Acid cleaners: used to remove mineral deposits in equipment such as dishwashers and steam tables

59 How do you think industrial cleaning products differ from those used at home?

60 Cleaning Products Do not store near food
Keep storage neat and well organized Keep in original containers Check labels for use, accidental swallowing, and signal words Report unlabeled products Throw away correctly—be environmentally friendly

61 Kitchen Cleanliness Keep facilities clean and sanitary
Cleaning: removing food and other soil from a surface Clean as you work Sanitizing: reducing the number of microorganisms on the surface Both must be done to eliminate contamination

62 Cleaning and Sanitizing
Everything should be kept clean and sanitary Pots, pans, dishes, and food contact areas should be cleaned before and after each use Clean and sanitize at four-hour intervals or if contaminated by another food product Use color-coded cutting boards and containers Sanitize all cutting boards thoroughly Tools and surfaces should be cleaned and sanitized with soapy hot water and sanitizer

63 Pesticides Control pests like bugs or rats
When used in large amounts, can contaminate food Can cause illness and death Use according to directions Store away from food and in locked container Never re-use containers Check regulations before disposing of bottles

64 Physical Hazards Caused by particles, such as glass chips, metal shavings, hair, bits of wood, or other foreign matter Some are found in food (i.e., bone shards or chips) Most contamination occurs when foodhandlers do not follow proper safety and sanitation practices

65 Pest Management Food = Potential for insects and rodents
Can pose a serious threat to safety of food Flies, roaches, and mice can carry bacteria and spread disease Once infested, it is hard to get rid of pests Pests need water, food, and shelter—a clean and sanitary environment is not very attractive Pests seek damp, dark, and dirty places—be sure to dispose of garbage quickly and properly

66 Pest Management Keep storage areas clean, sanitary, and dry
Dispose of any garbage quickly Keep food stored at least 6 inches off the floor and 6 inches away from walls Remove as many items as possible from cardboard boxes before you store them Maintain appropriate temperatures in storage areas If pests are found, report immediately to supervisor He will call an exterminator

67 Homework Using the article, the video clip, and one additional resource, explain why people should not abide by the 5-second rule in 2 paragraphs. Be sure to cite your other resource.

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