4 Personal Protective Clothing ApronsCleanChange when dirtyRemove when leaving food preparation areaAlways remove to take out garbageGlovesProtect from injury and food contaminationWash before putting on glovesDifferent gloves for different purposesDisposable: Change every 4 hours or when switching activities
5 Always use dry pot holders or oven mitts to handle hot items Always use dry pot holders or oven mitts to handle hot items. Why would you not want to use moist pot holders or oven mitts to handle hot items?
6 Personal Protective Clothing ShoesSturdy, slip-resistant, and closed toesBack BracesGet help lifting heavy itemsOccupational Back Support: back brace with suspendersSupports lower back while lifting
7 Personal Injuries Preventing Slips & Falls Walk, never run, in the kitchenWipe up spills immediatelyUse slip-resistant floor matsWear shoes with slip-resistant solesNo open-toed shoesUse safe ladders and stoolsClose cabinet drawers and doorsAsk for help or use a cart to carry heavy objectsKeep traffic paths clutter freePost appropriate wet floor signs
8 Personal Injuries Cuts – Sharp Tool Safety Guidelines Use knives for intended use onlyDon’t use to open plastic wrap or boxesCut away from your bodyCarry a knife down at your side, blade tip pointed toward the floor, sharp edge facing behind youLook where you reach when getting a knifeNever wave hands with a knifeIf a knife falls, do not catch itHold with firm grip on handleNever leave knife handle hanging over edge of surface
9 Personal Injuries Cuts – Sharp Tool Safety Guidelines Keep handles and hands dryKeep knives sharpUse a cutting boardWear protective gloves and guards to clean commercial slicersWash sharp tools separately—do not leave soaking in sinkThrow away broken or loose knivesStore knives in knife kit or rack
10 Personal Injuries Preventing Burns and Scalds Tilt pot lids away from bodyUse dry pot holders or oven mittsTurn pot and pan handle away from front of rangeStep aside when you open an oven doorGet help moving large, hot containersFollow directions to operate hot beverage machinesBe careful filtering or changing oil in flyers
11 Personal Injuries Preventing Burns and Scalds Wear appropriate safety clothing when using chemicalsKeep oven doors closedClean ovens after they have cooledKeep cooking areas, vent hoods, and other surfaces grease freeKeep flammable materials away from cooking areasUnplug electrical appliances with frayed cords
12 Personal Injuries Back Injuries and Strains Before heavy lifting, ask: Can I lift this object by myself?Is the object too heavy or too awkward to lift easily?Do I need help to move or lift the object?Is the path I must take free of clutter?
13 Personal Injuries Back Injuries and Strain Steps to Safely Lift Heavy Objects:Bend at your knees.Keep your back straight.Keep your feet close to the object.Center your body over the load.Lift straight up and do not jerk your body.Do not twist your body as you pick up or move the object.Set the load down slowly. Keep your back straight.
15 Kitchen Equipment Safety Get familiar with each piece of equipment before operatingLockout/tagout: all necessary switches on malfunctioning electrical equipment are tagged and locked from useBe familiar with safety features, such as guards and safety devices
16 Kitchen Equipment Safety Cleaning and MaintenanceTurn all switches to offUnplug equipmentFollow manufacturer’s instructions and food establishment’s directions
17 Fire Safety Can cause substantial property and equipment damage Cause injuries and deathMany flames and high heat sources in foodservice workplacesFires classified according to material on fire
18 Videos How to Put Out a Grease Fire Grease Fire Time Warp Grease Fire Time Warpwide.html
19 Fire Safety Prevention Make sure ashes are out before throwing awayBe careful around gas appliancesStore oily rags in closed metal containersTest smoke alarmsKeep flammables away from heat sourcesKeep water away from electrical outletsClean range and hoods to remove greaseKeep exits unlocked and accessible from the inside
20 Fire Safety – Protection Equipment Fire ExtinguishersType, number, and location of fire extinguishers varyOne in each work areaUse different chemicals to fight different firesGet inspected and tagged oftenTo use:Hold upright and remove safety pinPoint nozzle and bottom of fire and push down handle
23 Fire Safety – Protection Equipment Hood and Sprinkler SystemsWell vented hood system removes excess smoke, heat, and vaporsClean regularlyIf you have a sprinkler, keep products and supplies at regulated distance
24 Fire Safety – Fire Emergency Procedures EVERY foodservice business has proceduresEmployees must be familiar with theseFire exit signs must be posted in plain viewEmployees need to know where to meet for headcountEmployees need to know where to direct customersStay calm, call FD, communicate clearly
26 Emergency ProceduresEmergency: potentially life-threatening situation that usually occurs suddenly and unexpectedlyPost telephone numbers of emergency servicesLearn basic first aid and life-saving techniques
27 First AidAssisting an injured person until professional medical help can be providedEmergency Action TipsCheck scene and stay calmCheck the victimCall emergency numberUse proper first aid techniquesKeep unneeded people away from victimComplete an accident report
28 First Aid - Burns Remove the source of heat Cool the burned skin Apply cold water for at least 5 minutes—not ice!Never apply ointments, sprays, antiseptics, or remediesBandage the burnMinimize the risk of shockElevate feet, keep victim comfortable and resting
30 First Aid – Wounds Types of Wounds Abrasion: scrape or minor cut Laceration: cut or tear in the skins—can be deepAvulsions: portion of the skin is partially or completely torn offPuncture Wound: skin is pierced with a pointed object
31 First Aid – Wounds Treating Minor Wounds Wear disposable gloves Clean the cut with soap and waterPlace sterile gauze over cutApply direct pressure over the sterile gauze or bandageIf bleeding doesn’t stop, raise above heart
32 First Aid – Wounds Treating Serious Wounds Wear disposable gloves Control bleeding by applying pressure and elevatingCover with clean bandagesWash your hands thoroughly
33 First Aid – ChokingHeimlich Maneuver: thrusts to abdomen to help dislodge something stuck in an airwayStand behind the victim and wrap arms around their waist – locate navelMake a first with one hand and place the thumb side of fist against the middle of the abdomen just above navel and below the bottom of the breast bone.Place other hand on top of your fistPress your hands to the victim’s abdomen—use inward and upward thrustsRepeat as many times as it takes to dislodge food
35 CPRCardiopulmonary resuscitation: emergency care performed on people who are unresponsiveDo not perform without proper trainingContact Red Cross for training
36 Reports & Audits Always document details of an emergency Can limit restaurant’s liabilityGeneral safety audit: review and inspection of all safety procedures and equipmentManaged by employers, carried out by workersLet a supervisor know if you find:Missing or low-charge fire extinguishersBlocked hallways or exitsMissing safety informationFrayed electrical cords
37 Your TaskWith a partner and your given example, write a short report explaining the injury, the cause of the injury, the consequences of the injury, and how the injury might have been prevented.
38 Review QuestionsIdentify four types of personal injuries that foodservice workers must help prevent.Explain how to use a fire extinguisher properly.Describe the three types of burns.Explain how to do the Heimlich Maneuver.
41 Contamination Basics Foodborne illnesses kill thousands each year Consumers expect a sanitary (clean) environmentContaminated: when harmful microorganisms or substances get into food
42 Contamination BasicsDirect contamination: when raw foods, or plants and animals they come from, are exposed to harmful microorganismsCross-contamination: movement of harmful microorganisms from one place to another—people cause most cases
43 Contamination BasicsFoodservice works have a responsibility to prepare food in a sanitary environmentFederal, state, and local health department regulations to protect consumersHazard: source of dangerBiological, Chemical, and PhysicalCan result in contaminated food
44 Biological HazardsCome from microorganisms, viruses, parasites, and fungiSome plants and fish carry toxins (harmful organism or substances)Pathogens (disease causing microorganisms) cause most foodborne illnesses
45 Foodborne IllnessMicroorganisms grow in and on food with improper handlingOther common causes: cross-contamination, poor personal hygiene, and food handler illnessNumber of foodborne illnesses grows each yearAt risk: children, elderly, pregnant women, those with chronic illnesses or weakened immune systems
46 Bacteria Tiny, single-celled microorganisms Can make people very sick Symptoms: nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, dizziness, chills, headacheMultiply quickly in right conditionsFAT TOM
47 FAT TOM F = Food Bacteria need food for energy to grow A = Acidity Bacteria generally do not grow well in acidic environmentsT = Temperature Bacteria can thrive in temperatures between 41 and 135 degrees— some can survive freezing and cookingT = Time Although some bacteria multiply more quickly, it does take time to growO = Oxygen Many bacteria need oxygen to live—however, some do not need oxygen to growM = Moisture Bacteria prefer foods that are high in protein and moisture
48 Viruses Simple organisms that cause many food-related illnesses Need a host to grow (personal, animal, or plant)Grow in host—can survive freezing and cookingEasy to transmitUsually contaminate with poor hygieneEspecially susceptible: salads, sandwiches, milk, other unheated foods
49 Parasites An organism that must live in or on a host to survive Larger than bacteria and virusesOften in poultry, fish, and meatsCommon parasites: protozoa, roundworms, and flatwormsEliminated by cooking or freezingHeat poultry, fish, and meats to correct internal temperatureCheck in multiple places on product to ensure temperature
50 FungiSpore-producing organisms found in soil, plants, animals, water, and in the airNaturally present in some foodsSome are large (mushrooms) and can be eatenEating some types can cause stomach problems and even death
51 Molds Form of fungus Fuzzy-looking spores can be seen by the naked eye Can grow at any temperatureOften associated with food spoilageEven if only part has molded, throw it all away
52 Yeast Form of fungus Associated with bread and baking process Helpful in this situationUnhelpful and means spoilage in some foodsSauerkraut, honey, and jelly
53 Outbreak ResponseFoodborne illness outbreak: when two or more people become sick after eating the same food.Outbreaks must be reported to local health departmentCan cost a business thousands in legal fees, insurance costs, and loss of customersCould force establishment out of business
54 Outbreak ResponseLaboratory analysis can tell which food made customers sickPublic health department will investigateLearn how the illness was spread and how its spread can be prevented
55 Outbreak Response If you suspect an outbreak: Never admit to anything Tell the manager or supervisor of you suspicions immediately— supervisory will contact authoritiesAvoid panic. Let the authorities check the situationSave any food you suspect may be contaminated. Wrap food in original container or in a plastic bag. Label: DO NOT USE!
57 Chemical HazardsCleaning supplies, pesticides, food additives, and metalsMaterial Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) must be kept on fileForm to show information about a substance and how to use it safelyRequired by Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Right to Know law
58 Cleaning ProductsDetergents: used to clean walls, floors, prep surfaces, equipment, and utensilsHygiene detergents: used to clean deodorize, and disinfect floors, walls, and table topsDegreasers: solvent cleaners used on range hoods, oven doors, and backsplashes to remove greaseAbrasive cleaners: used to scrub off dirt or grime that can be difficult to removeAcid cleaners: used to remove mineral deposits in equipment such as dishwashers and steam tables
59 How do you think industrial cleaning products differ from those used at home?
60 Cleaning Products Do not store near food Keep storage neat and well organizedKeep in original containersCheck labels for use, accidental swallowing, and signal wordsReport unlabeled productsThrow away correctly—be environmentally friendly
61 Kitchen Cleanliness Keep facilities clean and sanitary Cleaning: removing food and other soil from a surfaceClean as you workSanitizing: reducing the number of microorganisms on the surfaceBoth must be done to eliminate contamination
62 Cleaning and Sanitizing Everything should be kept clean and sanitaryPots, pans, dishes, and food contact areas should be cleaned before and after each useClean and sanitize at four-hour intervals or if contaminated by another food productUse color-coded cutting boards and containersSanitize all cutting boards thoroughlyTools and surfaces should be cleaned and sanitized with soapy hot water and sanitizer
63 Pesticides Control pests like bugs or rats When used in large amounts, can contaminate foodCan cause illness and deathUse according to directionsStore away from food and in locked containerNever re-use containersCheck regulations before disposing of bottles
64 Physical HazardsCaused by particles, such as glass chips, metal shavings, hair, bits of wood, or other foreign matterSome are found in food (i.e., bone shards or chips)Most contamination occurs when foodhandlers do not follow proper safety and sanitation practices
65 Pest Management Food = Potential for insects and rodents Can pose a serious threat to safety of foodFlies, roaches, and mice can carry bacteria and spread diseaseOnce infested, it is hard to get rid of pestsPests need water, food, and shelter—a clean and sanitary environment is not very attractivePests seek damp, dark, and dirty places—be sure to dispose of garbage quickly and properly
66 Pest Management Keep storage areas clean, sanitary, and dry Dispose of any garbage quicklyKeep food stored at least 6 inches off the floor and 6 inches away from wallsRemove as many items as possible from cardboard boxes before you store themMaintain appropriate temperatures in storage areasIf pests are found, report immediately to supervisorHe will call an exterminator
67 HomeworkUsing the article, the video clip, and one additional resource, explain why people should not abide by the 5-second rule in 2 paragraphs. Be sure to cite your other resource.