Five Guidelines For Developmentally Appropriate Practices
1. Creating a Caring Community of Learners 2. Teaching to enhance development and learning 3. Constructing Appropriate Curriculum 4. Assessing Children’s Learning and Development 5. Establishing Reciprocal Relationships with Families
Teachers respect, value, and accept children and treat them with dignity at all times. Teaching to Enhance Development and Learning Example for Infants/toddlers: Adults respect infants’ individual abilities and respond positively as each baby develops new abilities. Experiencing caregivers’ pleasure in their achievements, infants feel competent and enjoy mastering new skills. Example for 3-5 Year Olds: Teachers encourage children’s developing language and communication skills by talking with them throughout the day, speaking clearly and listening to their responses, and providing opportunities for children to talk to each other. Example for 6-8 Year Olds: Teachers encourage children to set high but achievable goals for themselves and to tackle challenging problems and tasks. They lead them to raise their sights and reach a higher standard.
Teachers make it a priority to know each child well. Example for Infants/toddlers: There is sufficient continuity of care to ensure that every infant (and family) is able to form a relationship with a primary caregiver. The caregiver is then able to respond to the temperament, needs, and cues of each baby. Example for 3-5 Year Olds: Teachers observe and interact with individuals and small groups in all contexts to maximize their knowledge of what children can do and what each child is capable of doing with and without coaching. Example for 6-8 Year Olds: The teachers maximize their understanding of the child’s capabilities through watching them perform tasks. They then provide activities that will help them to progress. Teaching to Enhance Development and Learning
Teachers create an intellectually engaging, responsive environment to promote each child’s learning and development. Example for Infants/toddlers: Adults provide infants with an auditory environment that is not over stimulating or distracting. They choose music and other recordings that infants enjoy. Example for 3-5 Year Olds: Teachers draw on children’s curiosity and desire to make sense of their world to motivate them to become involved in interesting learning activities. They use verbal encouragement related to an actual task or behavior to help them feel confident. Example for 6-8 Year Olds: Teachers and children together select and develop sustained, in- depth project work to be carried out by small groups of children who then report back to the entire group. Teaching to Enhance Development and Learning
Teachers make plans to enable children to attain key curriculum goals across various disciplines. Example for Infants/toddlers: Caregivers organize the space into interest or activity areas, including areas for concentrated small-group play, being alone, art/water/sand and other messy activities, dramatic play, and construction. Example for 3-5 Year Olds: Teachers provide opportunities for children to plan and select many of their own activities from among a variety of learning areas and projects the teacher makes available, based on program goals and information gathered about their interests and abilities. Example for 6-8 Year Olds: Teachers plan the curriculum, time schedule, and environment, so that children can learn through active involvement in various learning experiences with each other, with adults, and with a variety of materials. Teaching to Enhance Development and Learning
Teachers foster children’s collaboration with peers on interesting, important enterprises. Example for Infants/toddlers: Adults engage in reciprocal play with toddlers, modeling for children how to play imaginatively, such as playing “tea party”. Example for 3-5 Year Olds: Teachers provide many opportunities for children to learn to work collaboratively with others and to socially construct knowledge as well as develop social skills, such as cooperating, helping, negotiating, and talking with other people to solve problems. Example for 6-8 Year Olds: Teachers use grouping as a deliberate teaching strategy and make it a key part o their planning. Classroom groups vary in size and composition depending on the activity and children’s needs. Teaching to Enhance Development and Learning
Teaching to Enhance Development and Learning Teachers develop, refine, and use a wide repertoire of teaching strategies to enhance children’s learning and development. Example for Infants/toddlers: A variety of safe household items that infants can use as play materials are available, including measuring cups, wooden spoons, non-breakable bowls, and cardboard boxes. Example for 3-5 Year Olds: Teachers provide many opportunities for children to plan, think about, reflect on, and revisit their own experiences. They engage children in discussion and representation activities (such as drawing, modeling in clay, etc). Example for 6-8 Year Olds: Teachers provide a variety of materials and activities that are concrete, real, and relevant to children’s lives. Objects for children to manipulate and experiment with, such as construction, games, computers, art media, and scientific equipment are readily available.
Teaching to Enhance Development and Learning Teachers facilitate the development of responsibility and self-regulation in children. Example for Infants/toddlers: Each toddler has a cot and bedding that are personally labeled. Getting her own blanket or special stuffed toy is a part of the child’s nap routine. Example for 3-5 Year Olds: Teachers facilitate the development of social skills, self-control, and self-regulation in children by using positive guidance techniques, such as modeling and encouraging expected behavior and redirecting children to more acceptable activities. Example for 6-8 Year Olds: Teachers provide a safe environment and age- appropriate supervision that allow for children’s increasing responsibility. For instance, children learn to move throughout the building independently, but teachers know where they are and what they are doing.
Class Activity for Teaching To Enhance Learning and Development Transitions 1. Make up a transition After participating in a transition and discussing possible transitions, make up one with a partner. 2. Sharing Fun Share your transition with the class.