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Ancient Japan.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Japan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Japan

2 Japan – Geography Japan consists of four large islands and thousands of smaller ones Kyushu (south) Hokkaido (north) Honshu (main) Shikoku Japan faces China & Korea to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east Japan is part of an archipelago Japan has extreme climates Snow in islands to the north Tropics (almost) in islands to the south

3 Japan – Geography Japan is a part of the Ring of Fire
Sits on a plate boundary Volcanoes and earthquakes Japan is mountainous 20% is farmable Most live on coast or few plains

4 Japan – Geography First settlers likely came during the Ice Age (11,000 years ago) Land bridge – Korea (south) Land bridge – Siberia (north) Survived by hunting/fishing Another group arrived around 300 CE New farming technique - rice in irrigated fields Because of proximity – barrowed.. China – writing system Korea – Buddhism ****************************************

5 Japan – Religion Shinto Native religion of Japan Means “way of gods”
Each clan worshiped own kami (god/spirit) Kami found in natural objects (trees) People built shrines wherever felt the power of kami

6 Japan – Religion Shinto Myth (first emperor)
Sun Goddess and the Storm God (brother) Each god supported a different clan who wanted to rule Japan Sun Goddess won and her grandson Ninigi became ruler She gave him three treasures: a bronze mirror (symbol of truth) a sword (symbol of wisdom) a curved jewel (symbol of kindness) Niningi passed symbols down to his grandson Jimmu who became first emperor in about 600 B.C.

7 Japan - Religion Buddhism Entered Japan in 552 from Korea Many sects

8 Japan – Religion Pure Land Buddhism Appealed to all classes
Most popular in Japan today Centers around a bodhisattva known as Amida He ruled a paradise called Pure Land Bodhisattva is enlightened being who choose to stay on earth and help others By placing trust in Amida and repeating his name, followers entered a paradise called Pure Land upon death

9 Japan – Religion Zen Buddhism Came from China
Stressed meditation – clear mind to achieve spiritual development Focus on self-control and discipline Appealed to samurai class ***********************************

10 Japan - Achievements The Tale of Genji
Considered to be the first novel in the world It is about the romantic adventures of a prince named Genji It was written by a woman named Murasaki Shikibu – she served the empress

11 Japan - Achievements Yamato-e (scroll paintings) Distinctly Japanese
Story is told as the scroll is unrolled The story is told with pictures and sometimes words

12 Japan - Achievements Noh drama Serious and intense style of drama
Used colorful costumes, masks, chants, music, and dance Feature gods, warriors, beautiful women, mad people, ghosts, and devils An evening of Noh drama would included several serious plays with funny skits in between

13 Japan - Achievements Kana
Around 900, Japanese simplified writing system New set of symbols called kana Each kana stood for one syllable ***********************************

14 Japan - Politics First Emperor
Historians believe the first emperor appeared around A.D. 200 or 300 Several clans competed/fought for land and power The Yamato clan gradually gained power over Japan

15 Japan - Politics Yamato Clan
The Yamato clan gradually gained power over Japan They would try to win another clans loyalty through marriage or warfare if necessary They claimed to be descendants from the Sun Goddess They believed they were living gods

16 Japan - Politics Prince Shotoku Took power in 593
He was a regent – a person who governs in the name of a ruler (too young or unable to rule) Goal was to unite Japan

17 Japan - Politics Prince Shotoku Goal was to unite Japan
Bring Buddhism to Japan Reduce power of clan leaders - people looked to clan leaders as Shinto priests Having one faith would unite the country Bring Confucianism to Japan Respect for family and social order Prince Shotoku gave Japan it’s first constitution or plan of government It was called the Constitution of Seventeen articles Based on Buddhist and Confucian thought ************************************

18 Japan - Politics Reform
Prince Shotoku’s work carried on after his death in 622 Taika Reform – means “great change” Law that made everyone subject to the emperor Lands and people controlled by the clans now belonged to the emperor

19 Japan - Politics Reform
To carry out the reform, a new law code was issued to the entire country Called the The Taiho Code Officially made the Yamato clan leader emperor Included laws for the organization of local government Defined crimes and punishments

20 Japan - Politics Two New Capitals
Taika Reform also called for the building of a permanent capitol The city of Nara was chosen and modeled after Chang’an in China Buddha influence dominated the capital Government officials felt threatened by wealth and power of Buddhist monks – moved the capital to Heian-kyo or Koyoto Monks & monasteries were not allowed to follow

21 Japan - Politics The Fujiwara Family
In the 800’s, the emperors power began to fade Fujiwara family ran the country The emperor was a “puppet” Sisters or daughters would marry princes Ruled for about 300 years & Japan was unified

22 Japan - Politics The Shoguns
The Taira and Minamoto clans fought together and were able to drive the Fujiwara family from power Over the years power shifted between the two clans

23 Japan - Politics The Shoguns – Minamoto Yoritomo
In 1159, the Minamoto clan stormed the palace in Kyoto In 1185, the two clans fought at sea Minamoto Yoritomo was the winner and he took the title of Shogun – did not plan to give up the title A new social order was developed *******************************************

24 Japan - Economy Heian Period Trade increased – economic growth
Towns sprang up Along trade routes As artisans created more goods for trading Around monasteries Artisans made goods and merchants bought and sold them Trade increased with China Exported Swords Pearls Copper Wood

25 Japan - Social What is feudalism?
Each daimyo relied on peasants to work the land. In exchange for their labor, he provided protection. The protection came in the form of samurai warriors The daimyo would then give money or land to the samurai

26 Japan - Social Emperor Shogun Daimyo Samurai
Peasants/Merchants/Artisa ns Japan - Social A New Social Order Life under Shoguns was lawless and violent New social order developed

27 Japan - Social Emperors (during Shoguns)
Had the highest rank, but held no real power

28 Japan - Social 2. Shoguns (during Shoguns) Actual ruler of Japan
Highest military rank

29 Japan - Social 3. Daimyo (during Shoguns)
Large landowners who protected peasants in exchange for labor

30 Japan - Social 4. Samurai Highly trained warriors
Trained fiercely, fought bravely, died with honor Followed a code called the bushido Bushido means “the way of the warrior”

31 Japan - Social 4. Samurai Personal Honor Loyalty to one’s lord
Pride in how trained and fought Pride in appearance (robe, armor, & horse) Loyalty to one’s lord More important than family, religion, or emperor

32 Japan - Social 5. Peasants/Merchants/Artisans (during Shoguns)
Made up about three fourths of the population ***********************

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