Presentation on theme: "The Argumentative Essay. What exactly is an Argument? An argument involves the process of establishing a claim and then proving it with the use of logical."— Presentation transcript:
What exactly is an Argument? An argument involves the process of establishing a claim and then proving it with the use of logical reasoning, examples, and research.
What is an Argumentative or Argument Essay? The purpose of an argumentative essay is to present well-reasoned conclusions in order to persuade the audience to accept or at least seriously consider a point of view.
The aim of writing argumentative essays To convince or persuade the reader. One attempts to change the reader’s mind and convince the reader to agree with the point of view or claim of the writer.
Key terms to learn before writing an argumentative essay 1. Argumentation: the act or process of forming reasons, drawing conclusions, and applying them to a case in discussion. 2. Pro Argument (PRO): point or statement that supports one’s ideas. 3. Counter Argument (CON): point or statement in opposition to the argument being made in a written document or speech. 4. Refutation: the process of disproving an opposing argument. 5. Opponent: a person who disagrees with something and speaks against it. 6. Proponent: someone who argues in favor of something; advocate.
Elements of Argumentation 6 Argument/Claim An argument states a claim and supports it with reasons and evidence from sources. Arguing your side makes you the proponent.
7 Counterargument/Counterclaim The counterargument/counterclaim is an argument that stands in opposition to your argument/claim. The counterargument/counterclaim is your opponent’s (the other side’s) argument that tries to explain why you are wrong. Elements of Argumentation
How to write argumentative essays Choosing a topic and writing the thesis statement Decide on a controversial topic (debatable and interesting). Write an argumentative thesis statement. Generate ideas (free writing or brainstorming).
When Supporting your Argument One important concern in writing an argumentative essay is to strengthen your argument. To do this, you need to base your argument on sound evidence. In supporting your argument, the evidence that you include can be: Facts: data that have been objectively proven and are generally accepted (such as historical facts, scientific data, statistics etc.) Examples: should be sufficient number of examples to prove the case. Support from authority Opinions of experts
The Role of Your Audience Understanding your audience is key to effective writing of all kinds, especially argumentative writing. An argument is an implicit dialogue or exchange with your audience, so in writing arguments, assume there is a reader that will not agree with you. Audience awareness is absolutely essential to successful argument; therefore… Know your audience –What is their position on the issue? –How strongly do they feel about it? –Are they open-minded enough to consider other views? –What will their objections be to your argument? You can overcome fair representations of your opponents’ views by giving a well-developed “yes, but...” response.
Don not be rude! You should make sure that you reach your audience without offending them! Use tactful and courteous language Avoid sweeping statements like ‘’everybody knows’’ or ‘’people with any intelligence agree that’’.
Useful sentences Yes ____, but ____ Although I agree up to a point, I still insist... (59). “I agree” that ____, but I cannot agree that ____.” X is right that ______, but she claims that ____ (60). I agree that ______ because my experience [of] ________ confirms it (57).
Practice Topic: pet ownership Audiences: –Middle-class elementary school-age kids –25-y.o. Indian women in Seattle –Dog show enthusiasts Invent an argument statement for an audience What might each group care about? Already know? Need to know? What points could you make about owning a pet?
Examples Click “Writing Exercises, “cancel” the registration option, then select “Model papers”: http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/writersref6e/Player /Pages/Main.aspx
In Conclusion Have a point to your argument—make your own decisions about your topic Identify your audience Explain what “They” say about your topic Respond to what “They” say with your argument Address potential objections with respect Show why your audience should care