Presentation on theme: "The mini-research paper"— Presentation transcript:
1 The mini-research paper Persuasive WritingThe mini-research paper
2 Position StatementThis is your thesis, but in persuasive writing, it represents your position on a controversial topicShould clearly state a plan for solving a problem or a call to actionMust include the words “should” or “should not”Absolutely NO “I think that…”– be firm in your beliefs.Ex: Smoking should be banned because it costs too much, hurts innocent people, and harms the smoker him/herself.
3 Reasons Your position (belief) needs to be supported by three reasons Each reason should directly relate to the position statementEach reason must be distinct from othersIf not, the structure of your essay will start to crumble
4 Reasons Example Smoking should be banned—position Reasons: It’s bad for the smoker’s healthSecond-hand smoke harms those who are already choosing not to smokeIt is too expensive
5 HELLO RESEARCH Evidence Each reason must be supported with evidence Facts, statisticsExamplesQuotes from experts
6 EvidenceEach piece of evidence must be distinct from others- do not use many statistics to prove only one point.Each piece should directly relate to the reason it is supportingThat relation should be explained
7 Order Order reasons and their evidence from least to most important You want your reader to remember your strongest argument- place it at the end!Tone: Should be serious and unemotional
8 Conclusion Should include a restatement of your position statement Should restate reasons that support positionShould then restate call to action
9 General outline- minimum I. IntroductionBackground info (detail)Position statementII. Reason #1 (least important)A. Evidence to supportB. Evidence to supportC. Evidence to supportIII. Reason #2 (medium important)IV. Reason #3 (most important)V. ConclusionA. restatement of positionB. Summary
10 Offering a Counterargument Addressing the claims of the opposition is an important component in building a convincing argument.It demonstrates your credibility as a writer--you have researched multiple sides of the argument and have come to an informed decision.Key Concepts: Concerned with asserting the importance of their own claims, writers sometimes overlook the importance of considering the views of the opposition within their own arguments. Countering oppositional claims demonstrates to the audience that the writer has carefully considered multiple components of the issue and has reached an educated decision. If a writer finds that the opposition cannot be countered effectively, he or she may need to reevaluate his or her own opinions and claims about the argument.
11 Counterarguing effectively Consider your audience when you offer your counterargument.Conceding to some of your opposition’s concerns can demonstrate respect for their opinions.Remain tactful yet firm.Using rude or deprecating language can cause your audience to reject your position without carefully considering your claims.Key Concepts: This slide suggests the importance of considering the audience in offering a counterargument. If a writer is trying to argue about the dangers of second-hand smoke to a group of smokers, the writer needs to offer his or her opinion in such a way that the opposition can see the rationality of his or her claims. If the writer instead chooses to rant about how much he or she dislikes smokers, it is doubtful that the audience will feel any sympathy with the argued position and will reject the argument. The facilitator may choose to emphasize that tact and audience consideration are very important elements of effective counterarguments.
12 ConcessionsA good argument will interweave opposing arguments and counteract them These should be included in applicable reason paragraphs after topic sentence, but before supporting details.The strongest reason should NOT include a concession; you do not want to weaken your strongest point.
13 Body Paragraph Structure TransitionTopic sentenceConcession statement-only on para 1 and 2Concession rebuttal– only on para 1 and 2Supporting detail 1 and explanation/ transSupporting detail 2 and explanation/ transSupporting detail 3 and explanationClincher