Presentation on theme: "The Three Appeals of Argument"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Three Appeals of Argument Ethos, Pathos, LogosThe Three Appealsof Argument
2 RhetoricApproximately 2300 years ago Aristotle wrote a piece, On Rhetoric, in which he laid out the three elements of persuasion: ethos, logos and pathos.Rhetoric is defined as the art of persuasion, and Aristotle’s writing on it is considered a seminal work for other how-to guides through the years.
4 EthosDefinition: In rhetoric, ethos refers to the values, credibility, and/or background of the speaker(e.g. shows that the person making the argument has a certain degree of credibility, is of good character and sound sense, and is qualified to be making the argument)Environmental issues: Al Gore’s ethos vs. Brad PittGuiding Questions: Are you someone worth listening to? Do you know what you’re talking about?
5 Creating EthosBe your best self…act in such as way as to gain your audience’s trust.Be(come) an expert on your topic.Give yourself props…let your audience know how your past experiences have made you a credible source.Talk to your audience. Know who you’re talking to and speak in terms and with examples they can understand.Quote reliable sources.
7 Pathos Definition: In rhetoric, pathos refers to emotions/feelings It is appropriate to use emotional appeal in your argumentTrouble occurs when you make this the sole or primary basis of your argumentGuiding Question: Can the reader connect with you on an emotional level? Can you make them care about what you are saying?
8 Creating Pathos Use in conjunction with logos to reach your audience Emotions appeal to audience more powerfully than reason aloneCan be used effectively in anecdotal evidenceUse humorUse analogies (joblessness is a disease infecting our nation)Use words, tones, expressions, gestures, etc that convey emotionKnow your audience…universal human emotions and particular groups’ concerns
10 Logos Definition: In rhetoric, logos refers to logic/reasoning. Based on logical argument & appropriate evidenceLogical arguments commonly of two types:DeductiveInductiveGuiding Question: Does what you are saying make sense? Does your evidence add up to your conclusion?
11 Creating LogosBe crystal clear….use plain terms and break everything downGo through sequences and processes (if a=b and b=c, then a=c)Use data and detailsUse analogies that they know and understandLook at the opposing side’s views and counter themUse real life examplesCite research
12 Rhetorical TriangleEthos: Are you a credible source? An expert? Have you done your research?Pathos: Are you connecting to your audience on an emotional level?Logos: Are your points rational? Have you thought this through? Does your evidence support your thesis?
13 Logical Appeal(Logos)Persuasive arguments that speak to readers’ common sense and logic.Drink Coca-Cola because it will quench your thirst.Ethical Appeal(Ethos)Persuasive arguments that address the readers’ sense of right and wrong. They also rely on the reader’s belief that the writer is ethical.Drink Coca-Cola because the corporation donates many of its profits to local charities.Emotional Appeal(Pathos)Persuasive arguments aimed at the readers’ hearts. Emotional appeals speak to emotions such as fear, love, sympathy, and pride. On the negative side, these appeals often appeal to readers’ fears based on stereotypes.Drink Coca-Cola because its flavor will leave you feeling happy and refreshed.
14 Tree Map PracticePERSUASIVE APPEALSLOGICALETHICALEMOTIONAL
15 An argument based on evidence An argument based on feelingsAn argument based on moralityAn argument based on statisticsAn argument based on reasoningAn argument based on sympathiesAn argument based on factsAn argument based on lawsAn argument based on human needsAn argument based on religious beliefsAn argument based on justice and fairnessAn argument based on shocking anecdotes.
16 PERSUASIVE APPEALSLOGICALAn argument based on evidenceAn argument based on statisticsAn argument based on reasoningAn argument based on factsETHICALAn argument based on moralityAn argument based on lawsAn argument based on religious beliefsAn argument based on justice and fairnessEMOTIONALAn argument based on feelingsAn argument based on sympathiesAn argument based on human needsAn argument based on shocking anecdotes.