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Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Presentation on theme: "Human Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Anatomy and Physiology
Blood pressure and regulation of cardiac output

2 Blood vessels Arteries, arterioles, capillary bed, venules, veins

3 Changes in blood pressure

4 Systemic blood pressure
Systolic and diastolic pressure Pulse pressure (declines gradually)

5 Systemic blood pressure
Mean arterial pressure MAP = diastolic + pulse pressure pressure 3 MAP = 70 mm Hg + 50 mm Hg = 87 mm Hg

6 Cardiac output Increasing preload pressure increases heart rate and stroke volume

7 Calculating Cardiac output
Cardiac output (CO) = HR x SV HR = 80 beats/min SV = 0.07l/beat or 70 ml CO = 80 x 70 = 5.6 l/min

8 Starling’s law The greater the filling of the heart, the greater the amount pumped by the heart

9 Blood pressure Determined by: cardiac output
vascular resistance (total peripheral resistance) blood volume

10 Short Term Regulation Neural control Hormonal control Venous return

11 Short Term Regulation Chemical control Stimulus: decline in BP
Adrenal medulla :norepinephrine (NE) Increases HR Stimulus: increase in BP Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) Decreases blood volume and pressure

12 Short Term Regulation Vascular resistance
Altering blood flow by changing vessel diameter Vasodilation/constriction

13 Short Term Regulation Vasodilation Blood pumped faster Venous return
Muscle pump Respiratory pump 100%

14 Long Term Regulation Changes in blood volume (kidneys)
Renal autoregulation Angiotensin II (renin) Hormones ADH Aldosterone

15 Blood Pressure Regulation
Baroreceptors Nerve endings detect stretch Most important (aortic arch, carotid arteries) Information relayed to the brain

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