CHARACTERS The actors in a story’s plot People, animals, robots, or whatever the writer chooses May be more than one main character, particularly in a book. Protagonist – main character(s) who has the conflict Antagonist – person(s) or force(s) in conflict with the main character Doesn’t have to be the bad guy Doesn’t have to be a person
Types of Characters 1. Flat character – little history is given; has only one or two personality traits * Stock Characters- A type of flat character. The type of character that appears so often in fiction the reader recognizes them right away. 2. Round character – fully developed with many different character traits 3. Dynamic character – changes during the course of the story (learns something) 4. Static character – does not change (doesn’t learn anything)
Direct Characterization Direct characterization is when the author TELLS the audience what the personality of the character is. Example: “The patient boy and quiet girl were both at the game.” The author is telling us that the boy is patient and the girl is kind.
Indirect Characterization Indirect characterization is when the author SHOWS things that reveal the personality of the character. There are FIVE different methods of indirect characterization: speech, thoughts, effect on other characters, actions, and looks. (STEAL)
Speech Speech- What does the character say? How does the character speak? Example: “Hey, we can have lots of fun at camp this summer! I love being outside!” This shows us the character is upbeat and happy.
Thoughts Thoughts- What is revealed through the character’s thoughts and feelings? Example: I wish it would stop raining. I am tired of sitting inside! This shows us the character is not happy about the situation.
Effect on Others Effect on Others- What is revealed through the character’s effect on other people? How do other characters feel or behave in reaction to the character? Example: The boy glared at his sister as she ate his dessert. This shows us that the character is upset about his sister’s behavior and inability to think of others.
Actions Actions- What does the character do? How does the character behave? Example: The girl rode the lawn mower through the house and into the garage. This shows us the girl is not concerned with rules or safety.
Looks Looks- What does the character look like? How does the character dress? Example: The little girl left the game with slumped shoulders and a frown on her face. This shows us the little girl is not enjoying herself and is upset.
SETTING Time and place in which a story happens Physical surroundings Weather Ideas Customs, Values, and Beliefs that are associated with the broad setting Historical/Cultural Integral - settings are key to a story, it affects the plot Background - settings are simply a backdrop for the action
PLOT Sequence of events in a story – action that moves the story along Exposition – introduces the story’s characters, setting, and conflict Rising action – develops the conflict with complications and suspense Climax – the emotional high point of the story Falling action – shows what happens to the characters after the climax Resolution – shows how the conflict is resolved or how the problem is solved Little Red Riding Hood – What is the sequence of events in Little Red Riding Hood’s story?
CONFLICT The element of the story which shows the concerns of the central characters. Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces External conflict: struggle between a character and an outside force (another character, society, technology, nature, supernatural, or fate – sometimes supernatural and fate are considered the same/one) Internal conflict: struggle within a character against opposing feelings or indecision
Character vs. Nature The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with the elements of nature.
Character Vs. Character The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with others, especially the antagonist.
Character vs. Society The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with society as a whole.
Character Vs. Technology The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with technology.
Character Vs. Supernatural The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with unnatural elements.
Character Vs. Fate When the protagonist tries to break free of a predetermined path chosen before him prior to his knowledge. It can also be referred to as an issue between destiny and freewill.
POINT OF VIEW Who is telling the story? Narrator’s standpoint or perspective First-person point of view: narrator is a character in the story, uses I, me, we, us Third-person point of view: narrator describes the story from outside Objective – like a camera is recording the action Omniscient – narrator knows thoughts and feelings of every character Limited – narrator knows thoughts and feelings of only one character Little Red Riding Hood – What is the P.O.V.?
Style - How the author writes, the techniques they use to write Point of View (POV)- Who is telling the story, three different types First Person- Told by someone IN the story, uses “I” and “me” Third Person Limited- Told by a narrator, OUTSIDE the story, the narrator only knows thoughts of one character, uses the pronouns “he”, “she”, and “they” Third Person Omniscient - Told by a narrator OUTSIDE the story, the narrator knows what all characters are thinking, narrator is all knowing (om=all), uses the pronouns “he”, “she”, or “they”
THEME Central message of the story Universal – applies to everyone, everywhere, at every time Sometimes the theme is stated directly Sometimes the theme is implied (not “right there”, more of an “on your own”) Little Red Riding Hood – What is the theme?