3 Elements of the Plot Exposition Background information a reader must understand in order to know what is going on in the storyIntroduces the characters, problem, and settingFound in the beginning of the storyRising ActionEvents that occur when the main character tackles the problem (complications); level of excitement and suspense builds
4 ClimaxThe main character comes face to face with the problem; most exciting part of the storyFalling ActionThings begin to get back to normal; life goes on (even if the problem isn't solved)ResolutionLoose ends are tied off; allows reader to clearly understand what happened
5 Theme Moral or main idea of the story. Doesn’t provide any plot developments and apply to many types of stories in almost any genre.
6 Characterization Protagonist- the main character in the story She or he is always involved in the main conflict and its resolution.Antagonist -The person opposing the protagonist
7 Flat Characterization A character who has one or two sides, representing one or two traits—often a stereotype.Flat characters help move the plot along more quickly because the audience immediately understands what the character is about.
8 Round Characterization A character who is complex and has many sides or traits with unpredictable behavior and a fully developed personality.Antagonists are usually a round characterization.
9 DefinitionsCharacterization is the process by which the author reveals the personality of the characters.There are two types of characterization: direct and indirect.
10 Direct Characterization Direct characterization is when the author TELLS the audience what the personality of the character is.Example: “The patient boy and quiet girl were both at the game.”The author is telling us that the boy is patient and the girl is kind.
11 Indirect Characterization Indirect characterization is when the author SHOWS things that reveal the personality of the character.There are FIVE different methods of indirect characterization: speech, thoughts, effect on other characters, actions, and looks. (STEAL)
12 Indirect Characterization Speech- What does the character say? How does the character speak?Example: “Hey, we can have lots of fun at camp this summer! I love being outside!”This shows us the character is upbeat and happy.
13 Indirect Characterization Thoughts- What is revealed through the character’s thoughts and feelings?Example: I wish it would stop raining. I am tired of sitting inside!This shows us the character is not happy about the situation.
14 Indirect Characterization Effect on Others- What is revealed through the character’s effect on other people? How do other characters feel or behave in reaction to the character?Example: The boy glared at his sister as she ate his dessert.This shows us that the character is upset about his sister’s behavior and inability to think of others.
15 Indirect Characterization Actions- What does the character do? How does the character behave?Example: The girl rode the lawn mower through the house and into the garage.This shows us the girl is not concerned with rules or safety.
16 Indirect Characterization Looks- What does the character look like? How does the character dress?Example: The little girl left the game with slumped shoulders and a frown on her face.This shows us the little girl is not enjoying herself and is upset.
17 The DifferenceRemember, the difference between direct characterization and indirect characterization is TELLING v. SHOWING!Indirect characterizations are like clues about the characters. There is no mystery with direct characterization because the author gives us the information we need to know!
19 DefinitionsForeshadowing: when an author mentions or hints at something that will happen later in the storyNice use of the line to show looking forward. Language - later in the story…. Something about that word. Don’t know a better replacement… just a thought.
20 Hint Now try breaking the word FLASHBACK apart. FLASH: a quick glimpse.BACK: a look back in the story at something that previously happened.
21 An Example…And now you will see portions from the well known children’s story Little Red Riding Hood.
22 Little Red Riding Hood Foreshadowing Once upon a time, there was a little girl who lived with her mother. Her mother asked her to take her old and lonely grandmother some food one day. "Don't stop along the way. Go straight to your Grandma's house and back. Don't talk to any strangers and watch out for the wolf in the woods! Now get along!"Before this slide, there could be a transition slide. Something that allows the reader to know what is coming next. .. Now you will will portions from a story…Foreshadowing
23 ForeshadowingThe first set of underlined words is an example of foreshadowing. Little Red Riding Hood’s mother is warning her about the wolf in the woods, which hints at what may happen next.Nice explanation. Can you use color to highlight meaningful words? Maybe use the arrow thing again. Question -isn’t there a clip art image with a shadow?
24 Little Red Riding HoodWhile she was walking through the woods, a wolf was walking past her. "I bet I could convince her to take the long way. Then I could get to her grandmother's house first and trick her into thinking that I was her grandma. That way I could have her and her grandma for a large feast,” he thought.
25 Little Red Riding Hood Flashback The wolf went up to Little Red Riding Hood and told her that he knew a shortcut. Little Red Riding Hood thought back to what her mother told her. “Don’t talk to any strangers and watch out for the wolf in the woods!” But it was too late, she had already listened to the wolf’s directions.Flashback
26 FlashbackThe second set of underlined words is an example of flashback. Little Red Riding Hood is thinking back to something that happened earlier in the story.Again - use of color
27 Little Red Riding HoodMost know how the rest of the story ends. Little Red Riding Hood and her grandma are saved from the wolf. Hopefully you can understand foreshadowing and flashback now.Change everyone to most - may isolate those students who do not -I.e. those not US born.
28 Point of View First Person Point of View Third Person Omniscient The narrator tells the story and is a character in the story. (Pronouns: I, me, us, we, our, etc.)Third Person OmniscientThe narrator is not a character in the story but can tell you the thoughts and actions of all characters at all times. (Pronouns: he, she, him, her, they, them, etc.)Third Person Limited:The narrator is not a character in the story but can tell you the thoughts and actions of a few key characters at all times. (Pronouns: he, she, him, her, they, them, etc.)
29 Setting When the story takes place Where the story took place Context or historical background in which the story is set provides us with additional plot information.
30 Conflict The problems encountered by the characters in the story. Two typesInternalExternal
31 Internal Conflict Character Vs. Self The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with her or his conscience.
32 External ConflictMain character fights against something or struggles to overcome something outside of himself.Character versus NatureCharacter versus CharacterCharacter versus SocietyCharacter versus TechnologyCharacter versus the SupernaturalCharacter versus Fate
33 Character vs. NatureThe protagonist in the story experiences conflict with the elements of nature.
34 Character Vs. Character The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with others, especially the antagonist.
35 Character vs. SocietyThe protagonist in the story experiences conflict with society as a whole.
36 Character Vs. Technology The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with technology.
37 Character Vs. Supernatural The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with unnatural elements.
38 Character Vs. FateWhen the protagonist tries to break free of a predetermined path chosen before him prior to his knowledge. It can also be referred to as an issue between destiny and freewill.