Presentation on theme: "Confederation October 26th, 2012. Union of Canada - 1840 In 1940, Ontario (Upper Canada) and Quebec (Lower Canada) joined forces. Each area retained its."— Presentation transcript:
Union of Canada - 1840 In 1940, Ontario (Upper Canada) and Quebec (Lower Canada) joined forces. Each area retained its Common Law (Ontario) and Civil Law (Quebec) Each area was given 42 seats. The hope was that by combining the two colonies, the French influence in North America would disappear and be assimilated. The misrepresentation of population in the Legislative Assembly angered the French, especially Louis Joseph Papineau. Responsible Government was soon born after Lord Durham’s report. That backfired the plan to assimilate the French!!
Charlottetown Conference The birthplace of Canada! Originally planned as a Maritime Union between Nova Scotia, PEI, Newfoundland, and New Brunswick. Britain advocated for a Maritime Union so they would stop being so economically dependent on Britain, and to have a stronger military force in light of the American Civil War.
Setpember 1-9, 1864 The Province of Canada asked if they could join to discuss a larger union. Newfoundland confirmed their position in late August, but it was too late for them to join. One would think a Conference of this significance would be highly important to the people of Charlottetown. It was not because the CIRCUS was in town!!!!!!!!
Happenings The first 5 days of the Conference included the Province of Canada discussing their desires while the Maritime Unions listened. Their ideas overshadowed the Maritimes’ ideas and benefitted Canada the most. The final 2 days included the Maritimes presenting their ideas. The Colonies decided to meet in Quebec the following month.
Quebec Conference October 10-27, 186_? Canada, PEI, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick participated. Newfoundland sent 2 people to observe.
The major debate was about whether Canada have a strong central (Federal) government (John A. Macdonald) or strong provincial governments. (Maritimes, Canada East). Lose Culture! Macdonald feared giving too much power to the provinces would result in an American Civil war like battle. The delegates compromised, dividing powers between federal and provincial governments. Compromises were made dividing the power between Fed. & Prov. A Lower House, the House of Commons was created, and the Senate, an Upper House, was decided upon. The Conference ended with the writing of the seventy two resolutions.
Quebec Conference Today what powers do the Provincial and Federal Governments control or share? FederalProvincialShared Taxation (GST), Unemployment Insurance, Patents, Citizenship, Penitentiaries, Criminal Law, Banking, Weights and Measures, Postal Services, Defence, Census, Currency, Copyrights, First Nations Reserves, and Trade. Direct Taxation within Province, Prisons, Hospitals, Education, Natural Resources, Formalization of Marriage. Old Age Pension, Immigration, Agriculture.
72 Resolutions These outlined the basics of the Canadian Constitution. They stated that Canada would have a strong federal government whose job would be to instill peace, order, and good government within Canada. Government will have two law making houses. Provinces in control of local affairs. Province of Canada split into Ontario and Quebec.
London Conference Held in London on Dec 4, 1866 and was the final conference held before Canadian Confederation in 1867. 16 delegates from Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia attended. Macdonald was the chairman of the conference. PEI did not attend as it was upset about what happened at the previous two conferences. The Dominion of Canada would be created by Upper and Lower Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. Difference from our Conferences. The purpose was to draft the British North America Act and to receive royal assent from the Queen.
London Conference The biggest debate was with Education. A separate (Roman Catholic) school system was wanted by Quebec. Maritimes opposed. A COMPROMISE was made with Section 93 of the act which guarantees separate school systems in Quebec and Ontario, but not the Maritimes.
British North America British North America Act,1867 Created the Dominion of Canada. Outlines Canada’s system of governance. Power at Provincial and Federal Levels. Created in the British Parliament so when changes needed to be made to it, Britain was in charge.
Canadian Constitution A constitution is a body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed. It is divided into three main written parts: The Constitutional Act, 1867 The Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982 An amending formula, which sets out ways in which the constitution can be changed. Requires Federal gov and 7 provinces agree on the amendment. Population of provinces > 1/2 population of Canada. **Plus permission from Great Britain.**
Unwritten aspects These includes all those things which are just understood and are based on the British pattern of parliamentary government. These include: Monarch as head of state Office of the Prime Minister Political Parties Election Acts
Summary Canada is a Federal State governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy. Federal State - A country with several self-governing states united by a central federal government. Parliamentary Democracy - A government in which the minsters of the Executive Branch are accountable to the Legislative Branch (House of Commons/Senate). Constitutional Monarchy - A form of gov’t where the monarchy is the head of state working within the parameters of the constitution.
Constitutional Act, 1982 1982 Constitutional Act Charter of Rights and Freedoms 1867 Constitutional Act
Constitutional Act, 1982 Amendment to the 1867 Act. Process of patriating the act. (Transferring control from Britain to Canada). This amendment now allowed Canada to amend its own Constitution. Quebec has yet to formally approve the enactment of this act. Renamed the BNA Act the Constitutional Act, 1867.
Constitutional Act, 1982 There were some changes and additions. These include: Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Makes up the first portion) Aboriginal Rights Clause Section on Equality A change to the amendment formula. No single province can veto constitutional amendments. The province most affected must vote in favour.
Charter of Rights and Freedoms This forms the first part of the 1982 Constitutional Act. It guarantees basic human rights to every Canadian no matter their age, sex, gender, culture, race, career, social status, religion, etc. Put in place to protect minorities from majority governments. Example - Page 272-274 of Canada Today Textbook.
1993 World Series Act Oct 23, 1993 The Blue Jays enter the bottom of the 9th inning of game 7 against the Philadelphia Phillies down by a single. run. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fhzMk8EQfzM