# Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer

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Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer

Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer
Florida Benchmarks SC.6.E.7.1 Differentiate among radiation, conduction, and convection, the three mechanisms by which heat is transferred through Earth’s system. SC.6.E.7.4 Differentiate and show interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 2

Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer
Florida Benchmarks SC.6.E.7.5 Explain how energy provided by the sun influences global patterns of atmospheric movement and the temperature differences between air, water, and land. LA The student will organize information to show understanding (e.g., representing main ideas within text through charting, mapping, paraphrasing, summarizing, or comparing/contrasting). Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 3

Hot and Cold How are energy and temperature related?
Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer Hot and Cold How are energy and temperature related? All matter is made of moving particles and has kinetic energy. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles. The faster a particle moves, the more kinetic energy it has. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 4

How are energy and temperature related?
Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer How are energy and temperature related? Thermal energy is the total kinetic energy of particles. Thermal energy depends on the number of particles. More particles means more thermal energy. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 5

What is thermal expansion?
Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer What is thermal expansion? As space between particles increases, a substance expands. The increase in volume that results from an increase in temperature is called thermal expansion. Thermal expansion causes a change in the density of a substance. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 6

What is thermal expansion?
Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer What is thermal expansion? Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance. Differences in density caused by thermal expansion can cause movement of matter. Movement in the atmosphere, water movement, and rock movement also can be caused by thermal expansion. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 7

Getting Warm What is heat?
Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer Getting Warm What is heat? Heat is the energy that is transferred between objects that are at different temperatures. Objects in contact will transfer energy until temperatures are equal in both objects. Energy flows from higher to lower temperatures. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 8

Why can the temperatures of land, air, and water differ?
Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer Why can the temperatures of land, air, and water differ? The different rates at which materials become warmer or cooler are due to specific heat. Materials with a high specific heat require more energy to show an increase in temperature. Water has a higher specific heat than land, which means it warms and cools slower than land. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 9

Heat How is energy transferred by radiation?
Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer Heat How is energy transferred by radiation? Radiation is the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves. An example would be when energy is transferred from a lamp to the soil. -> The sun transfers energy to Earth by radiation. Radiation can transfer energy to objects that are not in direct contact. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 10

How is energy transferred by radiation?
Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer How is energy transferred by radiation? Energy from the sun travels as waves and is called electromagnetic radiation. Forms of electromagnetic radiation include visible light, infrared radiation, X-rays, and ultraviolet rays. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 11

Where does radiation occur on Earth?
Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer Where does radiation occur on Earth? The sun is almost 150 million km away but is the major source of energy for processes on Earth. Solar radiation can be reflected, scattered, or absorbed. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 12

Heating Up How is energy transferred by convection?
Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer Heating Up How is energy transferred by convection? Convection is the transfer of energy due to the movement of matter. Convection occurs because most matter becomes less dense when it gets warmer. Convection currents form as warm and cool matter rise and fall due to temperature and density differences. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 13

Where does convection occur on Earth?
Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer Where does convection occur on Earth? Energy moves through the atmosphere as warm air rises and cool air sinks. Ocean water has different densities due to temperature and the amount of salt in the water. Energy is transferred through rock material from Earth’s core to the surface by convection currents. Convection happens more efficiently in water than in rock because particles move more freely in air or water. The freedom of movement allows for more energy transfer. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 14

Ouch! How is energy transferred by conduction?
Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer Ouch! How is energy transferred by conduction? Conduction is the transfer of energy from one object to another object through direct contact. For conduction to occur between two parts of the geosphere, there must be contact between those two parts. When objects touch, their particles interact. The greater the energy difference, the faster the transfer of energy by conduction occurs. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 15

Where does conduction occur on Earth?
Unit 10 Lesson 3 Energy Transfer Where does conduction occur on Earth? Energy can transfer by conduction from warm ground to cool air at Earth’s surface. Warm air can transfer energy to cooler water and cause evaporation. If water vapor transfers energy to air, the water vapor can condense. Energy can be transferred in rock by conduction, but very slowly. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 16