3 A pure substance: A mixture: is made up of one sort of molecules (or atoms).A mixture:Is made up from more than one sort of molecules (atoms).
4 Example: Oxygen gas is a pure substance because it is made up of one sort of molecule. Example: Carbon dioxide gas is a pure substance because it is made up of one sort of molecule.
5 Air is a mixture of the pure substances like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water, etc. hydrogenwatercarbon dioxideSo there are many sorts of molecules in air: the O2 molecules, N2 molecules, CO2 molecules, H2O molecules, etc.
6 Compounds and Mixtures Just mixing elements together will not usually give a compound.For example,Hydrogen is mixed with oxygenA mixture of hydrogen and oxygen
7 No water is formed for the simple mixing of hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. Hydrogen is mixed with oxygenwaterIn water, the hydrogen and oxygen atoms are joined together in every water molecule.
8 Particles in mixtures and compounds Mixture of hydrogen and oxygen.Compound water: it contains individual water molecules.Each water molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. It is a liquid.This mixture is a gas.
9 In the mixture, both hydrogen and oxygen still own their properties. e.g. the mixture is a gas, like hydrogen and oxygen.The properties of the compound (water) are entirely different from those of hydrogen and oxygen.E.g. water is a liquid while both hydrogen and oxygen are gases.
10 Composition of mixtures 1. Two or more elements (e.g.a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen.)2. Two or more compounds (e.g. a mixture of salt and sugar)3. A combination of one or more elements and compounds (e.g. a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide)
11 Study the summary in your notes. Do the exercise.
12 Solutions and suspensions When a substance is dissolved in a liquid, the mixture is called a solution.1. The substance is called the solute.2. The liquid is called the solvent.A solid + a liquid solutionsolvent solute
13 Example:Sugar is soluble in water. Add a spoon of sugar into a beaker of water and stir. The final mixture is a solution. Sugar is the solute and water is the solvent.