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■Essential Question ■Essential Question: –How did progressives bring reform to urban & state governments? ■Warm-Up Question: –How effective were progressive.

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Presentation on theme: "■Essential Question ■Essential Question: –How did progressives bring reform to urban & state governments? ■Warm-Up Question: –How effective were progressive."— Presentation transcript:

1 ■Essential Question ■Essential Question: –How did progressives bring reform to urban & state governments? ■Warm-Up Question: –How effective were progressive reformers in addressing: (a) Problems in cities? (b) Discrimination against African-Americans? (c) Inequalities against women?

2 Government Reform ■City, state, & national governments were in need of reform: –Corrupt political machines controlled city governments –Monopolists used their wealth to influence politicians, encourage monopolies, & fight labor laws –Political positions were gained based on patronage not merit –Corruption scandals plagued the national government Quick Class Discussion: What problems existed within the city, state, & national governments?


4 Urban Government Reform ■In the 1880s, reformers began to demand change in city gov’ts: –Reformers tried to end patronage (appointment based on loyalty) by passing the Pendleton Act which required merit-based exams –Reformers tried to make gov’t more efficient & break the power of machines by shifting power to city commissions & managers

5 After a hurricane destroyed the city of Galveston, Texas…

6 …politicians created the 1 st city commission gov’t Rather than 1 mayor making all decisions, a committee oversaw different aspects of local government

7 These changes were much more efficient & less corrupt than traditional city gov’ts Some cities created their own government-run water, gas, electricity utility companies Other cities adopted this model, but added a trained city manager to carry out the day-to-day operation of government

8 Progressive Reform in the States ■Progressive reformers impacted state governments too: –Most states created commissions to oversee state spending –States began regulating railroads & other big businesses to help workers & promote competition –States passed laws limiting work hours for children & women

9 Progressive Reform in the State ■The most significant state reformer was governor Robert La Follette’s “Wisconsin Idea”: –Used academic “experts” from the University of Wisconsin to help create state laws –Wisconsin was the 1 st state to create an income tax, form industrial commissions, & regulate railroads


11 Progressives helped make state governments more democratic Referendum: Citizens vote to increase taxes for new programs State of Texas Initiative: Citizens can put an issue on a state ballot & vote to make it a law Recall: Citizens can vote to remove an elected official

12 Progressive Reform in the States ■Progressives helped make state governments more democratic: –Most states had direct primary elections to allow voters to choose candidates, not parties –In 1912, the 17 th Amendment was ratified which allowed for the direct election of Senators by the people

13 The Senate

14 Direct Primary Elections

15 National Progressive Reform: Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, & Woodrow Wilson

16 President Theodore Roosevelt ■VP Theodore Roosevelt became president after the assassination of William McKinley in 1901 McKinley was assassinated by an anarchist in Buffalo in September of 1901

17 President Theodore Roosevelt ■TR was a different kind of president –He thought the gov’t ought to take responsibility for the welfare of the American people –His agenda of progressive reform was called the “Square Deal”

18 Theodore Roosevelt: A “Modern” President “It is the duty of the president to act upon the theory that he is the steward of the people, and…to assume that he has the legal right to do whatever the needs of the people demand, unless the Constitution or the laws explicitly forbid him to do it” ■ TR was committed to a series of reforms: – Breaking up harmful monopolies (called “trustbusting”) – Regulating businesses such as railroads & the meat industry – Conservation of natural resources

19 Trustbusting ■During the Gilded Age, Congress passed a series of laws designed to keep big business in check: –The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) was formed in 1886 to regulate railroads –The Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1890 made it illegal for companies to restrict trade ■But neither of these laws were strict enough to control monopolies

20 Trustbusting ■Roosevelt saw the benefit of efficient monopolies, but wanted to control bad trusts: –In 1902, the gov’t ordered the Northern Securities Company (a giant railroad monopoly) broken up because it violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act –The Roosevelt administration “busted” 25 trusts in 7 years

21 Theodore Roosevelt, the Trustbuster RESTRAINT

22 Supporting Workers ■In 1902, the United Mine Workers went on strike to demand higher pay & an eight-hour work day –The Anthracite Coal Strike lasted 11 months & threatened the nation as winter approached

23 Supporting Workers ■Unlike the Gilded Age presidents, TR did not side with the owners & break up the strike –TR forced both sides to arbitrate or face gov’t seizure of the coal mine –The result was a “square deal” for both sides

24 Regulating Business ■When muckraker Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle was published, Roosevelt pushed for regulation of the meat packing industry –Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act in 1906 –To ban harmful products & end false medicine claims, the Pure Food & Drug Act passed in 1906 Quick Class Discussion: Why did The Jungle generate so much outrage from Americans & politicians? Read excerpts from The Jungle

25 Unregulated Food & Medicines: The Need for the Pure Food & Drug Act

26 Conservation of the Environment ■During the Gilded Age, corporations clear- cut forests & viewed America’s natural resources as endless ■Roosevelt began the 1 st national environmental conservation program

27 Conservation of the Environment –The gov’t protected 195 million acres as off limits to businesses –The Reclamation Service placed natural resources (oil, trees, coal) under federal protection

28 National Parks and Forests

29 The Legacy of Theodore Roosevelt ■In 1908, Roosevelt decided not to run for re-election as president ■TR’s presidency was important because for the first time, the national government: –Regulated big business –Protected the environment –Assumed responsibility for the welfare of workers & consumers

30 When Roosevelt decided not to run for re-election in 1908, his successor to the presidency was Republican William Howard Taft William Howard Taft

31 The Presidency of Taft ■Like TR, Taft believed that the U.S. needed progressive reform : –In his 4 years as president, Taft helped break up twice as many monopolies as Roosevelt –Created the Children’s Bureau & pushed for child labor laws –Helped create safety codes for coal miners & railroad workers

32 The Presidency of Taft ■But, Taft did not always trust the gov’t to solve problems & often sided with conservative Republicans –He angered progressives when he supported a high tariff which helped monopolies –He allowed a cabinet secretary to sell 1 million acres of conservation land to businesses ■Progressive politicians hoped that TR would run for president again

33 Progressives (& Roosevelt) began to view Taft as having made a mess of TR’s reforms

34 The Election of 1912 ■TR decided to run for president in 1912 but the Republican Party picked Taft as their candidate –TR created the Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party –Taft was the Republican nominee & the Democrats ran a reform governor, Woodrow Wilson ■Republican voters were divided in whom to support: Roosevelt or Taft

35 The Election of 1912 & the Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party) I’m feeling as fit as a “bull moose”

36 The Election of 1912 With the Republicans divided, Democrat Woodrow Wilson won the election of 1912 Republicans divided by a Bull moose equals a Democratic victory!

37 President Woodrow Wilson ■President Wilson oversaw a great wave of progressive reforms: –16 th Amendment –16 th Amendment created the 1 st income tax in U.S. history –17 th Amendment –17 th Amendment allowed for the direct-election of U.S. Senators –18 th Amendment –18 th Amendment outlawed alcohol (prohibition) –19 th Amendment –19 th Amendment granted women the right to vote (suffrage) “Progressive Amendments”

38 President Woodrow Wilson ■President Wilson oversaw a great wave of progressive reforms: –Created the Federal Reserve to regulate the economy by adjusting the money supply & interest rates –The Clayton Anti-Trust Act limited the ability of companies to form monopolies & protected workers’ right to strike –The Federal Trade Commission monitored unfair business practices

39 The Federal Reserve System The “Fed” regulates the amount of money in circulation to help keep the economy strong

40 The End of Progressive Reform ■The Progressive Era (1890-1920) brought major changes: –Gov’t regulation of big business –Improvements in U.S. cities –More democracy for the people ■But, the outbreak of World War I in Europe distracted Americans & brought an end to the Progressive Era

41 ■The End

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