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U.S. History Chapter 8 Section 4 “Roosevelt’s Square Deal”

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1 U.S. History Chapter 8 Section 4 “Roosevelt’s Square Deal”
2.5, 3.5, 3.8, 9.3 Booker T. Washington at White House Dinner

2 Roosevelt Shapes the Modern Presidency
Theodore Roosevelt: 1901: Became President after William McKinley Assasinated (Leon Czolgocz) Square Deal: TR’s Program: Keep the wealthy from taking advantage of the rest -Did not believe in helping the lazy or making everyone rich “Every man shall have a square deal…no less…no more”

3 Trustbusting and Regulating Industry
Roosevelt changed the way that Government dealt with business disputes 1902: Coal Miners Strike: TR Threatened to send troops in if strike not over quickly Hepburn Act: Strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) 1904: Northern Securities v. U.S. : Case ruled the big railroad company an “illegal” trust TR became known as a “Trustbuster” *He did not mind “Good Trusts” (Fair) only disliked “Bad Trusts” (Unfair)

4 Regulating Food and Drug Industries
1906: Upton Sinclair wrote: The Jungle Meat Inspection Act: Gov’t began to inspect meat Pure Food and Drug Act (FDA): Banned impure food and “dishonest” medicine claims (Snake Oil Salesmen)

5 Government Manages the Environment
1872: Yellowstone National Park Formed 1890: Yosemite National Park John Muir: Helped found Yosemite Preserve: To leave “unused” Conserve: “Use-smart” Gifford Pinchot: Protect “some” land and use others. Then, protect “used” land and use “protected” land (Recycle) National Reclamation Act: Gov’t Decides how water is used (Dams…etc.)

6 Roosevelt and Taft Differ
Roosevelt steps down after serving two terms William Howard Taft: Backed by TR and won Presidency Payne-Aldrich Tariff: Showed Taft’s weak “political” leadership Taft hated ALL trusts and busted more than Roosevelt 1911: Standard Oil “Busted” Supported: “Rule of Reason” Large Monopolies ok as long as they do not try to drive out competition (I call it the “NIPSCO” rule)

7 Roosevelt Strikes Back
Taft: Fired Pinchot Roosevelt: Angry…ran against Taft New Nationalism: Business should serve country as well as self. Efficiency is key. ELECTION of 1912 Taft: Republican Roosevelt: Progressive: “Bull-Moose” Party *Republican Party Split *Democrat Woodrow Wilson Won Election

8 Chapter 8 Section 5 “Woodrow Wilson”
U.S. History I Chapter 8 Section 5 “Woodrow Wilson”

9 Election of 1912

10 Wilson’s New Freedom New Freedom: Prevent “strong from crushing weak” …But retain personal freedom from gov’t. Lowered Tariffs Sixteenth Amendment: Income Tax Amendment Federal Reserve Act: Strengthened money supply Federal Trade Commission (FTC)-Looked out for false advertising or improper labeling (Watchdog) Clayton Anti-trust Act: Strengthened anti-trust laws Workingman’s Compensation Act: Temporay help for disabled workers Set railroad workers day at 8 hours

11 Legacy of Progressivism
16th (Income Tax), 17th (Direct Election), 18th (Prohibition), 19th (Women’s Suffrage) Amendments Political Reform Dollar Strengthened Land Conservation Strong Federal Government “Levels” playing field (Business) Worker gains (Unions) Too much government? (Socialism) What about race issues? (One great failure) Do people “depend” on Government too much? Is it the governments, or American people’s job? Do reforms promote “laziness” or sense of “Entitlement”

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