Presentation on theme: "“Intro to Position Paper” Ateneo de Manila High School English Department Mr. Galinato."— Presentation transcript:
“Intro to Position Paper” Ateneo de Manila High School English Department Mr. Galinato
OBJECTIVE At the end of the session, the students should be able: to determine the nature and scope of a position paper to identify the DO’s and DON’Ts in writing a position paper to take the necessary precaution in writing a position paper
What is the NATURE of a Position Paper? Presents an arguable opinion about an issue Arguable = Argue = Argument Goal: –to convince the audience to believe your opinion
Important: –Address all sides of the issue –Present in a manner that is easy for your audience to understand –Support your argument with evidence What is the NATURE of a Position Paper?
3 C’s: –Campus –Community –Country What is the SCOPE of a Position Paper?
Do’s & Don’ts Do: 1)Pick a topic that can be argued. 2)Formulate a thesis that contains your opinion. 3)Rely on facts, not opinion, to make your argument. 4)Make use of the different methods of development. 5)Be mindful of your audience and view point. 6)Remember that your writing skills still apply.
Do’s & Don’ts Don’t: 1)Don’t disrespect the opposing point of view. 2)Don’t fall victim to logical fallacies. 3)Don’t rely upon emotional fallacies. 4)Don’t employ ethical fallacies.
#1: Pick a topic that can be argued. Position papers are meant to: –Convince readers of something –Change their mind –Incite change
Ask yourselves the following questions: 1)Is it a real issue, with genuine controversy and uncertainty? 2)Can you identify at least two distinctive positions? 3)Are you personally interested in advocating one of these positions? 4)Is the scope of the issue narrow enough to be manageable? #1: Pick a topic that can be argued.
#2: Formulate a thesis that contains your opinion. From the beginning, the reader should have no doubt about your stance on the issue. Good formula to follow in stating your thesis: 1)Identify the situation, then… 2)Make a claim about what should be done
Example: –Since the present generation of high school students are showing signs of greater difficulty in English grammar and spelling, schools must capitalize on the consistent reinforcement of these two components throughout 1 st to 4 th year. #2: Formulate a thesis that contains your opinion.
#3: Rely on facts, not opinion, to make your argument. Make a FOR and AGAINST list about your topic. Come up with a list of SUPPORTING EVIDENCE for both sides.
SUPPORTING EVIDENCE TYPE OF INFORMATION TYPE OF SOURCE Introductory information and overviews Directories, encyclopedias, handbooks In-depth studiesBooks, government reports Scholarly articlesAcademic journals Current issuesNewspapers, magazines
SUPPORTING EVIDENCE TYPE OF INFORMATION TYPE OF SOURCE StatisticsGovernment agencies and associations Position papers and analyses Association and institute reports Expert testimony and personal accounts Interviews
1)INDUCTIVE and DEDUCTIVE reasoning 2)COMPARISON and CONTRAST Opposing and Alternating patterns 3)CAUSE and EFFECT #4: Make use of the different methods of development.
4)ANALYSIS Division Dissection Enumeration Focusing on the problem Stating the essentials 5)SYNTHESIS #4: Make use of the different methods of development.
#5: Be mindful of your audience and view point. In considering your audience, ask yourselves the following questions: 1)Who is your audience? 2)What do they believe? 3)Where do they stand on the issue? 4)How are their interests involved? 5)What evidence is most likely to be effective with them?
In considering your view point, ask yourselves the following questions : 1)Is your topic interesting? 2)Can you manage the material within the specifications set by the teacher? 3)Does your topic assert something specific and propose a plan of action? 4)Do you have enough material to support your opinion? #5: Be mindful of your audience and view point.
#6: Remember that your writing skills still apply. The same rules of grammar, formality, and documentation apply. Your conclusion must tie your paper together with a summary of the main points.
#1: Don’t disrespect the opposing point of view. Treat the issue and the opponent with dignity. Any topic worth arguing about does not have an easy answer. All sides of the issue are likely to have valid points. The more professional your behavior and argument, the more convincing you will be.
#2: Don’t fall victim to logical fallacies. Avoid arguments that depend upon generalization and oversimplification. –Dicto Simpliciter (Sweeping Generalization) –Hasty Generalization Don’t attempt to tie together unrelated ideas as if they were related. –Post Hoc
#2: Don’t fall victim to logical fallacies. Don’t assume that a complex situation can have only one correct outcome. –Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
#3: Don’t rely upon emotional fallacies. Don’t attempt to overcome a reader’s good judgment by using exaggerated emotional appeals. –Ad Misericordiam
#4: Don’t employ ethical fallacies. Avoid tactics and unjustified attacks that are directed to the person and not the issue at hand. –Poisoning the Well
I.Introduction A.Introduce the topic B.Provide background on the topic C.Explain why it is important D.Assert the thesis (your view of the issue)
II.Your Argument A.Assert Point #1 of your claim 1.Evidence #1 2.Evidence #2 3.Evidence #3 B.Assert Point #2 of your claim 1.Evidence #1 2.Evidence #2 3.Evidence #3 C.Assert Point #3 of your claim 1.Evidence #1 2.Evidence #2 3.Evidence #3 Sample Outline
III.Counter Argument A.Summarize the counter claims B.Provide supporting information for counter claims C.Refute the counter claims D.Give evidence for your refutation Sample Outline
IV.Conclusion A.Restate your argument B.Provide plan of action C.Do not introduce new information / topic Sample Outline
Plagiarism Plagiarism is a form of stealing. Ignorance is not an excuse. Give credit where credit is due. Plagiarism = Academic Dishonesty.
To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use: –Another person’s idea, opinion, or theory; –Any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings -- any pieces of information -- that are not common knowledge; –Quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words; –Paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words. Plagiarism
1)Read “Narrowing Your Subject to a Specific Topic,” pp. 380-381, AIE. What are the five (5) steps in narrowing your topic? 2)Brainstorm on the possible topics for your Position Paper. 3)Choose the five (5) best topics and write them on Size 4. Submit tomorrow.