Presentation on theme: "Chemical Reactions and Enzymes Why are enzymes important to living things?"— Presentation transcript:
Chemical Reactions and Enzymes Why are enzymes important to living things?
Standards ● CLE 3210.1.3 – Describe how enzymes regulate chemical reactions in the body. ● Class Objectives: ● Describe how the enzyme and substrate interact to catalyze chemical reactions. ● Describe conditions that affect enzyme function.
Chemical Reactions process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
Chemical Reactions always involve the breaking of bonds in reactants and the formation of new bonds in products reactants - elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction products - elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
Energy in Reactions Energy is released or absorbed whenever chemical bonds form or are broken. Chemical reactions that release energy often occur spontaneously. Energy may be released as light, heat, and/or sound. ....
Energy in Reactions Chemical reactions that absorb energy will not occur without a source of energy. Every organism must have a source of energy to carry out chemical reactions
Activation Energy energy that is needed to get a reaction started
Enzymes catalyst - substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction works by lowering a reaction’s activation energy
Enzymes enzymes - proteins that act as biological catalysts very specific, generally catalyzing only one chemical reaction part of an enzyme’s name is usually derived from the reaction it catalyzes
Enzyme Naming The enzyme’s name is usually from the chemicals in the reaction it catalyzes. Usually ends in -ase
Enzyme examples DNA polymerase – links nucleotides together to make DNA Carbonic anhydrase – speeds up the conversion of CO 2 to carbonic acid in the blood
The Enzyme-Substrate Complex Enzymes provide a site where reactants can be brought together to react. Such a site reduces the energy needed for reaction. Substrates - reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
Enzyme-Substrate Complex(Lock & Key Model) ● Substrate: ● Active Site: The reactant(s) of the chemical reaction. Part of the enzyme into which the substrate fits.
Enzyme-substrate complex how enzymes work… Enzyme hexokinase Substrates Glucose ATP Substrates bind to active site on enzyme lock and key Once reaction is over, products of reaction are released and enzyme is free to start process again
Synthesis and Decomposition ● Enzymes can participate in two types of reactions: ● Synthesis: ● Decomposition: Decomposition A reaction in which two or more substrates are combined to form one product. A reaction in which one substrate is separated to form two or more products.
Regulation of Enzyme Activity Enzymes can be affected by any variable that influences a chemical reaction pH temperature certain proteins help turn enzymes “on” or “off”