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Enzymes Objective: Identify and understand the role of enzymes.

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Presentation on theme: "Enzymes Objective: Identify and understand the role of enzymes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enzymes Objective: Identify and understand the role of enzymes

2 Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction is when bonds are broken and reformed to make different substances. Reactant/SubstratesProducts Ex. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O glucose oxygen carbon dioxidewater

3 Role of Enzymes Increase biochemical reaction rates Help regulate cell metabolism Enzymes

4 Characteristics of Enzymes: Name usually ends in suffix –ase, often derived from name of substrate – Maltase – enzyme that helps split maltose What enzyme splits sucrose?______________ What enzyme splits lactose?_______________ Enzymes

5 Bind to specific substrate(s) Able to facilitate the reaction of large quantities of substrate Enable cell reactions to proceed at biological temperatures Work best at certain temperatures and pH Enzymes

6 Enzyme – protein that acts as a biological catalyst Catalyst – substance that affects a chemical reaction without being used up themselves Enzymes

7 Active site – location on the enzyme where reaction occurs Substrate – substance that an enzyme acts upon Product – substance that is created Enzymes

8 Activation Energy How could you speed up this chemical reaction? Energy absorbed Activation energy Reactant Products Energy released

9 Activation Energy Lowering the activation energy will speed up the reaction Energy absorbed Energy released Reactant Products Activation energy

10 Activation energy - the minimum energy needed to cause a chemical reaction to occur Enzymes lower the activation energy!!!! How Enzymes Work

11 Two theories of how enzymes bind to substrates Lock-and-Key Model – substrate molecule fits into enzyme just like a key fits into a lock Induced Fit Model – enzyme’s shape changes slightly to bind with substrate – More widely accepted How Enzymes Work

12 Substrate molecule fits into active site on enzyme – “Enzyme-substrate complex” Enzyme shape changes slightly to bind to substrate – “Induced fit” Enzyme catalyzes a chemical reaction in the substrate – Involves breaking or forming chemical bonds Products are released Enzyme is ready to bind to another substrate E + S  ES  E + P How Enzymes Work-Order of Business

13 Enzyme Active site Substrate Product Sucrose Glucose + Fructose sucrase Enzymatic Reaction Enzyme Substrate Complex

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