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Teaching & Education a beginner’s guide

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1 Teaching & Education a beginner’s guide
Dr. Ramesh Mehay Programme Director Bradford VTS

2 Today’s A&Os Aims To introduce you to educational theory to help you in your teaching with registrars and medical students To keep this pretty light hearted without you falling asleep Objectives At the end of today’s session You’ll understand the four ACME steps to delivering effective teaching sessions You’ll be able to distinguish between an aim and an objective Hopefully, some practice….

3 A.C.M.E. IMPORTANT SLIDE 4 important aspects of any educational session: Aims & Objectives Content Methodology Evaluation The Acme Corporation is a fictional corporation that exists in the Looney Tunes universe. It made its first appearance in a Buddy cartoon (Buddy's Bug Hunt), and it also appeared in the Egghead cartoon Count Me Out in which Egghead purchases a "Learn How To Box" kit from Acme. The Acme Corporation was featured most prominently in the Road Runner/Wile E. Coyote cartoons. The name is ironic since the word acme actually means the best or pinnacle. Generally, the products from the fictional Acme Corporation are very generic and tend to fail. The company is never clearly defined, but appears to be a conglomerate which produces everything and anything imaginable (leading to the backronym "American Company Making Everything"), no matter how elaborate or extravagant. An example is the Acme Giant Rubber Band, subtitled "(For Tripping Road Runners)", which would appear to be produced specifically for Wile E. Coyote, who is perhaps one of Acme's best customers.

4 Aims & Objectives I How can you do something or AIM for something if you don’t know what that AIM is? Analogy: buying a house Ignoring A&Os  everything goes wrong (unstructured, chaos) A&Os are foundation building blocks

5 Aims & Objectives II Aims & Objectives = purpose = what are you/we trying to do/achieve? Aims – a broad statement of intent eg at the end of this session, you’ll be more knowledgeable about educational theory bits that will help you in practice Objective – a specific statement of intent eg at the end of this session, you’ll be able to define an aim and an objective SPEND TIME REALLY TEASING OUT THE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

6 Aims & Objectives III Aims and Objectives usually fall into 3 domains
knowledge skills/competencies attitudes

7 Content I Easy to figure out content if u have defined the A&Os
Remember to deliver on the learner’s agenda which may be totally different than yours Sometimes, your agenda might be important too and thus  negotiation Possible content: K.S.A. Deep Learning vs Superficial Learning How to teach at several levels in one session eg “GPR who says I don’t know anything about blah blah blah” Consolidate heavy content stuff with handouts

8 Content II Linking knowledge to skills Miller’s pyramid
Does Shows how Knows how Knows

9 Methodology I Perceptions What do you see?
Ask the Audience - What do they see? Hands up….old lady, young lady, other, both. This goes to show that we all have different pre-concieved ideas and concepts. Some of you see an old lady, others a young one, others something else. If we carry different perceptions then surely we all learn differently. That means, one method of instruction of method of learning may not cater for us all. In addition, as we all have different preconcieved ideas about a certain topic, as a group, we can learn a lot from each other and appreciate the different points of view.

10 Methodology II There are a variety of ways of delivering something
Some more effective than others Use a mixture of ways even in one session (esp with groups of learners)  learning styles Skills can never be acquired simply through talking; practice is best, demonstration/role play alternatives Always try to get participants involved – interactiveness; by being awake, they learn Don’t bombard with too much information Remember, average attention span is 20 minutes  breaks

11 Methodology III We remember: 10% of what we read 20% of what we hear
30% of what we see 50% of what we see and hear 80% of what we say 90% of what we say and do (Rigg) Often we get comments and feedback in the HDR sessions that state “could have been done in half the time if we didn’t have to role play and if someone just told us” Yes, it could have been done in half the time. BUT the important thing is that you would have acquired sweet nothing or little….and more than likely, most of you would have fallen asleep. But by doing, by being interactive, by using many senses (‘multisensing’), we constantly reinforce our brains with new information… the extent it is acquired with greater effect and less effort. So don’t be afraid of games, role plays and other new methods of learning. Go out and play.

12 Methodology IV Putting it all together I hear and I forget
I see and I remember I do and I understand Confuscius c 450 BC The questionairre gives data on people’s learning style preferences, which can be used in a variety of ways….for instance: 1) learning using methods that compliment you preference style 2) using methods to improve or boost weaker area’s 3) Courses can be designed to appeal to different learning styles or to cater for a group of attendees with the same learning style preference 4) Learning styles can be used to formulate team members so that the team on the whole has a range of skill mix….or to help tailor individual members to roles that compliment their learning styles

13 Methodology V Methods of Instruction
the lecture the modified lecture the demonstration registrar practice registrar reading group discussion conferences seminars workshops, clinics the fishbowl role-play simulation games videos/films brainstorming programmed instruction field trips question and answer Get audience to list on a flip chart, different methods of teaching. So you can see from the list above, there are a variety of teaching methods. Different people prefer different teaching methods….much of it governed by your learning preference. However, if we used several of these methods in one tutorial session, we might actually succeed in catering for most of the learning styles within the group. This is why, on the Bradford VTS, we use several methods in one session or sitting. A lot of you hate role play….but now can you see why we do it…there are others in the audience who love it. In fact, interactive learning is a very effective method! Didactic lectures are a method which research has shown to be an ineffective method of learning when used alone in isolation. That is why if we do give a lecture in a session, it lasts for only a short period. Didactic lectures are in fact a child way of learning…we had it at infant school, at junior school, at sixth form/further education and even in medical school….and that is why some of you love it…because you were comfortable with it and sometimes, stepping out into unfamiliar grounds, as in role play, can feel daunting. But, you are all adults and so a child’s method isn’t appropriate any more. You should not be spoon fed, but you must now feed yourselves.

14 Methodology VI Knowledge
Lectures Tutorials Books Journals Electronic information sources

15 Methodology VII Skills
Clinical Practical Consultation Communication Problem solving Research and audit (evaluating and doing)

16 How do we acquire skills and develop attitudes and values?

17 Methodology VIII Some learning tools (incl. for attitudes)
problem case analysis - things you know you don’t know random case analysis - issues you may not have identified critical incident analysis - learning from mistakes and near misses PUNs (patient unmet needs) DENs (doctors educational needs)

18 Methodology IX Experiential learning (Kolb)
Kolb (1984) describes an experiential learning cycle: concrete experience observations and reflection formation of abstract concepts and generalizations testing implications of concepts in new situations. So whilst learning from concrete experience forms part of the theory of experiential learning, a process reflection is also central.

19 Methodology X Reflective practitioner
Schön (1983) developed the concept of the ‘Reflective Practitioner’. The professional practitioner reflects on their knowledge whilst engaging in activity. This enables them to adapt to the potentially unique context or problem with which they are faced. Coles (1994) concludes that: ‘Professional education should provide people with the opportunity to reflect on their practice and to identify the theories embedded in their routine work.’

20 Methodology XI Constructivism (3 Cs)
Three C’s Construction- Knowledge builds on what is already known. Context is important when learning and also when applying learning in practice Collaboration – knowledge is socially negotiated, i.e varies in different contexts / cultures, collaboration helps to explore different perspectives.

21 Evaluation I FEEDBACK gives you an EVALUATION of
Information about performance or behaviour which leads to action to affirm or develop performance or behaviour i e to affirm what you do well to help you develop in areas you do less well

22 Evaluation II Useful feedback
is well timed (enough time, full attention, calm, prepared) involves mutual goodwill is balanced is specific is descriptive can lead to change (if change required))

23 Evaluation III Receiving feedback
may need to ask listen carefully ask for clarification, examples, alternatives give it time to sink in think about your relationship with giver don’t let small criticisms devastate don’t be defensive

24 And the last slide……. (yippy  )
Closure Remember ACME What are you trying to do? Ask the learner… Negotiate Think about the content in light of the A&Os – be careful re: overloading with info Think about your methodology – add dynamism, enthusiasm, interactiveness If you have tried something before, try it; play with it; don’t be scared Get the learners to help you be even better – evaluate! And the last slide……. (yippy  )

25 Adult learning learning what’s important to you
applicable in the real world (context) learner, not teacher, is responsible learning is self directed learning is continuous, must adapt to new situations compare to pedagogic (childhood) learning

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