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How can we teach effectively?

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Presentation on theme: "How can we teach effectively?"— Presentation transcript:

1 How can we teach effectively?
Ramesh Mehay Course Organiser, Bradford VTS

2 identify learning objectives introduce some educational theory
Aims identify learning objectives introduce some educational theory Increase your repertoire of teaching skills

3 The Educational Cycle Assess Needs Design Assessment Set Objectives
Decide Methods

4 Part One – Defining the A&Os
What do they need to know? What are the aims and objectives of the session?

5 Identify what they want to learn
FIRST OF ALL, DEFINE WHAT THEY NEED TO KNOW THAT WILL HELP YOU DEFINE THE AIMS & OBJECTIVES Ask them Check lists (eg from the medical school) problem case analysis - things you know you don’t know random case analysis - issues you may not have identified critical incident analysis - learning from mistakes and near misses PUNs (patient unmet needs) DENs (doctors educational needs)

6 Aims & Objectives Important for any session you do
Good starting point – focus Aims are general “better insight into management of COPD” Objectives are specific “understand the different therapies and their step line use” (GOLD)

7 Part Two – Domains of Learning
What are we trying to teach?

8 What are we trying to teach?
K.S.A. knowledge skills/competencies attitudes

9 Knowledge factual; evolving; evidence base Evaluating and using ‘knowledge’ - critical appraisal; application of knowledge Skills & Competencies Clinical, Practical, Consultation, Communication, Problem solving Research and audit (evaluating and doing) Attitudes ethics etc; self awareness; commitment to maintaining standards Personal care for patients Practice context - practice issues; regulatory framework Broader context - medico-political/legal/social; ethnic/cultural

10 Part Three – Educational Theory
What principles and philosophies in education might help with our teaching?

11 Linking knowledge to skills - Miller’s pyramid
Does Shows how Knows how Knows

12 Experiential learning (Kolb)
concrete experience observation, reflection formation of abstract concepts and generalisations testing implications of concepts in new situations

13 Reflective practitioner
The professional practitioner reflects on their knowledge whilst engaging in activity. This enables them to adapt to the potentially unique context or problem with which they are faced (Schön,1983) Professional education should provide people with the opportunity to reflect on their practice and to identify the theories embedded in their routine work (Coles, 1994)

14 Constructivism (3 Cs) Construction - knowledge builds on what is already known Context - is important in learning and in applying it Collaboration - important in exploring different perspectives because knowledge varies in different contexts and cultures

15 Adult learning = androgogy
learning what’s important to you applicable in the real world (context) learner, not teacher, is responsible learning is self directed learning is continuous, must adapt to new situations

16 Feedback - definition Information about performance or behaviour which leads to action to affirm or develop performance or behaviour, i e to affirm what you do well to help you develop in areas you do less well

17 Part Four – teaching methods
How else can we do it?

18 Electronic information sources
Acquiring knowledge Lectures Tutorials Books Journals Electronic information sources

19 Project based learning
Other Methods Lecture Debate Buzz groups Mini-lecture Brainstorming Action learning Project based learning Case discussion Critical incident Role play Triadic teaching PBL Video teaching Task groups Balint group microteaching Buzz group = to combat inactivity; small group learning; “turn to a neighbour and share opinions and reactions for a short time”, then feed back Mini-lecture = a short burst of input, fact or theory, in the course of a group activity aimed at stimulating discussion or linking up points. Participants may contribute their own ideas, thus increasing involvement with the material, introducing variety, distributing effort and responsibility, and developing presentation skills. Task groups = subgroups are each allocated a topic to analyse and report back to a plenary as a contribution towards a wide picture; collaborative learning from each other Action learning = learning by doing; “watch one, do one, teach one”; good for practical skills Project based learning = another learning by doing method Case discussion = indispenable; rooted in real life and in the personal experience of the learner; real questions; real solutions; yet flexible enough to range beyond the immediate Balint = focuses mainly on the doctor and the awareness of his own feelings about an unfolding case that is presenting challenges, rather than the clinical content of the case; good for feelings and attitudes; identifying the feelings of others Role-play = very valuable technique. Works best when it arises naturally in the process of 1-1 or group teaching. Role reversal is helpful too. Triadic teaching = three participants – the subject, the listener, the observer Microteaching = analysing complex behaviour like communication skills. Dissecting it and focussing on the component parts. Usually via video work.

20 Difficult Cases Good for those difficult situations


22 What Makes a Good Teaching Session? (LAST SLIDE)
Tailored to learner’s learning style Dependent on learner’s knowledge and experience Get the learner to do the groundwork Use educational tools Videos Books and booklets Papers and articles electronic sources (software, internet) Giving the tutorial direction - link to experience Maintaining interest Interact Open-ended questions Give time Vary content Baggage section

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