Presentation on theme: "In half an hour Research methods RESEARCH METHODS."— Presentation transcript:
in half an hour Research methods RESEARCH METHODS
Methods of Investigation Formulation of hypothesis to promote scientific enquiry.
Scientific Method Involves gathering information to identify patterns or relationships Generating theories to explain these patterns Devising a hypothesis to test the theory
The Hypothesis Must be testable, it is a testable and precise statement which predicts what is expected to happen. Eg: Alcohol consumption will significantly affect reaction times.
The hypothesis must be tested in a controlled/objective way so the results of the test provide evidence to: ASupport BRefute/Reject The hypothesis So: A hypothesis is a precise and testable statement of what the researcher predicts will be the outcome of a study.
In Experiments The hypothesis is called the Experimental Hypothesis. Eg:Participants in a group will give more similar answers to a task than those doing the task alone.
This hypothesis is predicting a cause and effect relationship or a pattern, it predicts a difference. 1.What is the pattern? 2.What is the cause? 3.What is the effect? 4.What is the difference predicted?
In a Correlation Study The hypothesis is called a Research Hypothesis. Eg: There will be a correlation between the number of people in a group and the level of conformity shown by the individual.
The Null Hypothesis Every hypothesis has a (Nill) Null hypothesis – which predicts, there will be no difference or relationship between a participant (alone or sitting with others in task scores). Experimental hypothesis. Any difference, which may occur, will be due to chance. Eg in a correlation study the null hypothesis There will be no correlation between the number of people in a group and the level of conformity shown by and individual
Any correlation if found will be due to chance. Both hypothesis cover as possible outcomes of the research, the results should tell the researcher which hypothesis can be. Accepted or Rejected
Experimental Hypothesis Involves: Testing an independent variable to find the effect on the dependent variable. The experiment gives researchers greater control over what happens and enables them to test. Cause and Effect
How Do Researchers Do This The researcher keeps all variables constant except (one) the one they are investigating. The Independent Variable/IV) Then the researcher measures the effect this has on another variable. The Dependent Variable
An Experimental Hypothesis Participants sitting alone will respond faster to a call for help than participants sitting with 2 others. 1.Identify the IV 2.Identify the DV
Zimbardo 1969 Experiment on Deindividuation Read P33 1Identify the IV 2Identify the DV 3Formulate a hypothesis 4Formulate a null hypothesis
Milgram 1963 Experiment on Obedience Read P 30 1Identify IV 2Identify DV
Piaget 1920 1.Formulate a hypothesis for Piagets conservation of liquid experiment. 2.Formulate a null hypothesis. 3.Identify the IV. 4.Identify the DV.
Controlling To be confident the IV has caused a change In DV we must control all other influential variables and aspects of the experiment. These are called extraneous variables.
These variables include: Situational Variables These are aspects of the environment which affect the participants behaviour in the experiment. Eg: * Variation in light * A time of day * The way the instructions are given Background Noise Situational variables must be controlled or kept constant for all participants.
Participant Variables These are the differences between participants and how these affect the results: Eg if participants have to do a word memory task or face memory task Poor eyesight Being dyslexic Poor attention span Having a cold/headache All could affect individual performance and results Researchers try to either control participant variables or ensure these are evenly distributed between groups or conditions.
Activity Experimental hypothesis Alcohol will affect time/accuracy on a driving simulator. 1.What situational variables would you have to control or keep constant in this experiment? 2.What participant variables need to be controlled or kept constant?