A. Definitions 1. Acid releases hydrogen ions (H + ) 2. Bases release hydroxide ions (OH - ) 3. pH scale – measures how acidic or basic a solution is by measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions.
B. pH 1. Measured by litmus paper, pH paper, or pH meter. 2. Range is between 0 – 14. 3. Acid – below 7; Base – above 7 4. pH of 7 is a neutral solution; contains equal amounts of H + and OH-; not an acid or base ex: pure water
C. Acid 1. All acids begin with an H (exception: water is not an acid) Ex: HCl – hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4 – sulfuric acid 2. Conduct electricity (are electrolytes) 3. Have a tart or sour taste 4. pH less than 7 (more H +, less OH - ) 5. Reacts with active metals such as Zinc and Magnesium 6. Turns litmus paper red
D. Base 1. All bases end in OH Ex: NaOH - drain cleaner Ca(OH) 2 – lime fertilizer 2. Feels slippery and tastes bitter 3. Conducts electricity (are electrolytes) 4. pH above 7(less H+, more OH - ) 5. Litmus paper turns blue
E. Neutralization 1. Acids react with bases to form water and salt. This is called a neutralization reaction because the acids and bases equal each other out. 2. The hydrogen ions equal out the hydroxide ions.