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Problems under the Articles led to Conventions Lead to state meetings and call for revision…

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Presentation on theme: "Problems under the Articles led to Conventions Lead to state meetings and call for revision…"— Presentation transcript:

1 Problems under the Articles led to Conventions Lead to state meetings and call for revision…

2 Mount Vernon Conference - 1785  Delegates met to discuss problems between Maryland and Virginia over the use of the Potomac River  Common boundary – no one “owns”, no one can tax the other for its use

3 Annapolis Convention - 1786  Called to discuss other common problems between states  Only 5 states attended  Called for a convention to be held the following year in Philadelphia

4 The Constitutional Convention  Where: Philadelphia  When: 1787 (May – Sept.)  Original Purpose: To amend the Articles of Confederation

5 Philadelphia Convention – Who Attended?  55 delegates - 12 of 13 states  Not Rhode Island  G. Washington – “President” of the Convention  B. Franklin – Host to delegates  James Madison – “Father of the Constitution” kept notes and records  Alexander Hamilton – advocates strong central gov’t

6 Who was absent?  Representatives of 90% of the population  Thomas Jefferson  John Adams  Thomas Paine  Patrick Henry  Samuel Adams

7 Philadelphia Convention – What did they agree to do?  Don’t amend the Articles – write a new plan!  Secret debate and discussion  ↑ powers of national government Powers – to tax,  to raise army,  to regulate interstate and foreign commerce,  sole power to coin money  Need 3 branches – legislative, executive & judicial

8 (What were the) Compromises (at the) Constitutional Convention?

9 How to establish representation in the national legislature?  Virginia Plan “Big” States Representation should be proportional based on population of the state (bigger states get more representatives) Representatives should be elected by the people  New Jersey Plan “Small” States Representation should be equal by state (smaller states have the same power as the bigger states) Representatives should be chosen by state legislatures

10 The Great (Connecticut) Compromise  National Legislature will have 2 houses (bicameral)  The House of Representatives will have the number of representatives per state based on the population of the state – census every 10 years; representatives directly elected by the people  The Senate will have 2 representatives per state; Senators will be chosen by the state legislatures (1913- changed by 17 th Amendment)  Both the House and Senate must pass any bill so they have to learn to cooperate

11 How to count the slave population?  Northern states Don’t count the slaves for purposes of representation Do count the slaves for taxation  Southern states Do count the slaves for purposes of representation Don’t count the slaves for taxation

12 3/5 Compromise  Slaves would be counted as 3/5 of a person for both representation and taxation  South would get additional seats in the House of Representatives based on a slave population that could not vote  But the South would have to pay additional taxes maybe discouraging a large number of slaves  “The cruelest part of the Constitution”

13 How to conduct trade and assess tariffs?  North Tax imports to keep out foreign competition & protect America’s “infant” industries  South Don’t tax exports because it would make it difficult for American farmers to compete in European markets

14 Tariff Compromise  Congress may tax imports but never may they tax exports  Reward “good” behavior (exporting); discourage “bad” behavior (importing)  Congress will not interfere with the slave trade before 1808

15 How to Elect the President? (Democracy vs. Too Much Democracy)  Plan #1 – Directly elected by the People  Plan #2 – Congress will select the President (Parliamentary Democracy – like Britain)  Plan #3 – State Legislatures will select the President

16 The Electoral College Compromise  Voters will elect electors representing a candidate  Electors will choose the President  # of Electors = # of Reps in House + # of Senators  An indirect election by the people because the founding fathers did not trust “the people” to make wise choices. ( Where the Founding Fathers “elitists”…men of property?)

17 Electoral Votes – 2008 vs. 2012

18 To be elected President in 2008  A candidate will need a majority of the Electoral votes – 270 of 538  It is possible for a candidate to win the popular vote (people’s vote) but lose the Electoral vote 2000 – Al Gore/ George W. Bush (47.9%) 1824 – Andrew Jackson/ John Quincy Adams (30.9%) 1876 - Hayes (48%) / Tilden 1888 – Grover Cleveland/ Benjamin Harrison (47.8%)

19 Ratification of the Constitution  Ratification: the process of making the Constitution official  Constitutional requirement: 9 of 13 states need to approve it

20 The Federalist Papers A series of papers written in favor of the Constitution Examples: #2 The Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence by John Jay #8 Consequences of Hostility Between the States by Alexander Hamilton #10 The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection by James Madison #52 The House of Representatives by James Madison

21 RATIFICATION  Anti- Federalists “win”…  BILL OF RIGHTS added!

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