Disputes between the states Causes: 1. suspicion & rivalry 2. postwar depression 3. weak central government Effects: 1. boundary disputes 2. states taxed goods from other states 3. different currencies led to trade problems 4. Shay’s Rebellion 5. secession talks American’s realize after 5 years that change is needed!!!
A. Congress calls a meeting in Philadelphia a. May 1787: Constitutional Convention b. Purpose: revise Articles of Confederation B. Attendees: a. 55 delegates: lawyers, judges, well educated and experienced politicians. b. George Washington – President c. James Madison – “Father of the Constitution” d. Alexander Hamilton e. Benjamin Franklin- (oldest delegate)
C. Absentees a. John Adams, Jefferson – in Europe asdiplomats b. Sam Adams, Patrick Henry,- opposed changing Art. Of Conf. D. Meetings were private & details kept from public.
II. Conflicts and Compromise “Bundle of Compromises!” A. P roblem: Representation in Congress a. Virginia Plan- i. Written by James Madison ii. Supported by LARGE states iii. Proposed representation based on population.
The Virginia Plan—continued The Virginia Plan called for... New government with 3 separate branches (legislative, judicial, & executive) Bicameral legislature – Representation based on population or upon how much money it gave in support of the central government. Lower House – House of Rep. elected by popular vote from each State. Upper House – Senate Chosen by the House from a list of nominations.
b. New Jersey Plan- i. Written by William Paterson ii. Supported by SMALL states iii. Proposed equal representation in Congress iv. Retain unicameral legislatures v. All states equal representation vi. Limited powers to tax & regulate trade between states vii. Federal Executive-Selected by Congress viii. Federal Judiciary- Selected by the Executive
c. Solution: THE GREAT COMPROMISE Also known as the CT Plan i. Representation in the lower house (House of Representation) based on population ii. Representation in upper house (Senate) is equal = all states get 2 each
B. Problem: Do slaves count for representation/taxation? a. North – NO for representation, YES for taxes b. South – YES for representation, NO for taxes. c. Solution: 5 slaves = 3 people for representation & taxes. “THREE FIFTHS COMPROMISE”
C. Problem : Importation of Slaves a. North – NO b. South – YES c. Solution: Slave importation could continue for 20 more years (End in 1808)
D. Taxation of Imports/Exports a. Agricultural States – NO b. Manufacturing States- YES c. Solution: Congress can tax imports but NOT exports.
III. New Power of Congress A. Levy & collect taxes B. Regulate foreign and interstate commerce C. Coin $
IV. Establishment of Executive Branch A. Single executive w/ a 4 year term chosen by state electors.
V. Establishment of a Judicial Branch A. Supreme Court & power to create other courts established.
VI. Ratification of the Constitution A. N INE states required for ratification. a. Difficulty obtaining states’ approval. b. “Federalists”- supporters of the Constitution i. Believed in Federalism (system in which power is shared by central & state governments). ii. Promised amendments would be added. iii. Published “The Federalist Papers” I. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay
c. “Anti-Federalists”-opposed the Constitution i. Patrick Henry, Sam Adams, John Hancock ii. Central government too much power iii. No mention of God in document iv. Failed to protect basic liberties v. Wanted to maintain status quo
B. By July 1788, the Constitution was ratified by 9 states!!!! New government is launched!