2 Geography of IndiaThe Indus Valley is located on the Indian Subcontinent.Subcontinent ~ a large land mass that juts out from a continent.In the middle of India is the Deccan Plateau, a raised area of level land, that provided water for farmers.The Indian subcontinent also has monsoons.Winter Monsoons = Hot and Dry!Summer Monsoons = RAIN!
3 Early Indus Civilization Around 2600 B.C., the Indus River Civilization emerged along the Indus River Valley.The Indus River Civilization had two capitals: Harrapa and Mohenjo-Daro.Archaeologists can not decipher the writing of the Harappan civilization and know very little about these people.Archaeologists have excavated Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro to find clues about their way of life. They have used the artifacts to learn about this civilization.
4 Excavate the Indus Valley Task: You are an archaeologist on a dig in Mohenjo-Daro. Your boss wants a report on what you have discovered about the Harappan Civilization.
5 Excavate the Indus Valley Step 1: Examine the picture and read the information presented.Step 2: Answer the question at the bottom of each picture.
6 Quick Write!From the artifacts you saw today, in what ways do you think Mohenjo-Daro was like a modern city? (write 5-7 sentences)NO HOMEWORK
8 The Aryans The Aryan Civilization began around 1500 B.C. The Aryans were nomadic people who migrated to India with their horses from southern Russia.The nomadic Aryans eventually started to farm and colonize the Ganges river basin.They used iron tools to clear the land for villages.The Aryans wrote the Vedas, a collection of hymns, chants, rituals, and religious teachings.The Vedas describe the Aryans as warriors who love to eat, drink, and have fun.
9 Aryan Government and Society Aryan tribes were led by chiefs called Rajahs.Social StructureIndian people were divided into social classes in what was called the Caste System.Brahmins (priests)Kshatriyas (warriors)Vaisyas (farmers, artisans)Sudras (slaves)A person could not change their place in the Caste System. They remained the Caste that they were born into for their entire life.
10 Aryan Religion and Literature Two major religions emerged in Ancient India – Hinduism and Buddhism.We will learn more about these two religions next week Aryan LiteratureAryans wrote two epic tales: The Mahabharata and Ramayana.The Mahabharata told about religion and warfare.The Ramayana taught Aryan values.
11 Maurya EmpireIn 321 B.C., Chandragupta Maurya began the first Indian Empire called the Maurya Empire.The most important Maurya emperor was Asoka. Asoka was Buddhist who did not believe in violence and ruled through moral example.Asoka’s Edicts ~ commands that described how the Maurya Empire would be ruled. The following is one of his edicts:“All men are my children. Just as I seek the welfare and happiness of my own children in this world and the next, seek the same things for all men.”
12 Gupta EmpireAbout 500 years after the Maurya, the Gupta dynasty united most of India.The Gupta emperors organized a strong central government that promoted peace and prosperity.Under the Gupta’s, India enjoyed a Golden Age, or a period of great cultural achievement.The Gupta Golden AgeTrade and farming flourished under the Gupta Empire, which contributed to a growth of arts and learning.Gupta artists were best known for their sculptures and paintings in temples.Indian mathematicians began the concept of zero and developed the decimal system.