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WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? The Management Hierarchy

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2 WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? The Management Hierarchy
Management Process of achieving organizational objectives through people and other resources. The Management Hierarchy • Top management, middle management, supervisory management Skills Needed for Managerial Success • Technical skills, human skills, conceptual skills Managerial Functions • Planning, organizing, directing, controlling

Vision Perception of marketplace needs and the methods an organization can use to satisfy them. • Must be focused yet adaptable to changes in the business environment. • Long-term success is also tied to the ethical standards that top executives set. • High ethical standard can also encourage, motivate, and inspire employees to achieve goals.

Types of Planning Strategic • Determining the primary objectives of an organization and then acting and allocating resources to achieve those objectives. Tactical • Guides the activities required to implement overall strategies. Operational • Assigning employees and teams to carry out tactical plans. Contingency • Planning for unforeseen major accidents, natural disasters, and rapid economic downturns.

• Often makes the difference between success and failure. Define the Organization’s Mission Assess the Competitive Position Set Objectives Create Strategies for Competitive Differentiation Turn Strategy into Action Evaluate Results

Programmed and Nonprogrammed Decisions • Programmed decision • Nonprogrammed decision How Managers Make Decisions • Recognizing a problem or opportunity • Developing potential responses • Evaluating alternative solutions • Selecting and implementing an alternative • Assessing the results

7 MANAGERS AS LEADERS Leadership Styles Which Leadership Style Is Best?
Leadership Ability to direct or inspire people to attain organizational goals. • Involves the use of influence or power. Leadership Styles • Autocratic, democratic leadership, free-rein leadership Which Leadership Style Is Best? • Important variables: • Corporate culture of the firm • System of principles, beliefs, and values

8 CORPORATE CULTURE Corporate culture Organization’s system of principles, beliefs, and values. • Managerial philosophies, communications networks, and workplace environments and practices all influence corporate culture. • Typically shaped by the leaders who founded and developed the company and by those who have succeeded them. • Can be changed. • Strong culture = everyone knows and supports the same principles, beliefs, and values. • Weak or constantly shifting culture = lack of a clear sense of purpose.

9 Organizational Structures
Organization Structured grouping of people working together to achieve common goals. Departmentalization Process of dividing work activities into units within the organization. Delegation Act of assigning work activities to subordinates. • Employees have both responsibility and authority. Span of management Number of subordinates, or direct reports, a supervisor manages. • Centralization or decentralization

10 Types of Organization Structures
Line Organizations • Direct flow of authority from CEO to subordinates. Line-and-Staff Organizations • Combines line departments and staff departments. Committee Organizations • Authority and responsibility are jointly in the hands of a group of individuals rather than a single manager. Matrix Organizations • Links employees from different parts of the organization to work together on specific projects.

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