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Marco Snoek Who is responsible for the professional development of teachers? Teachers ownership of professionalism IPDA 2009 Annual conference Birmingham.

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Presentation on theme: "Marco Snoek Who is responsible for the professional development of teachers? Teachers ownership of professionalism IPDA 2009 Annual conference Birmingham."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marco Snoek Who is responsible for the professional development of teachers? Teachers ownership of professionalism IPDA 2009 Annual conference Birmingham

2 Marco Snoek

3 Policy versus practice??? Is there a dilemma? Are there conflicting demands? Aims PolicyPractice Providing conditions Putting it into practice Strategies Consistency

4 Marco Snoek Outline Policy debates on teacher professionalism in Europe Perspectives on Teacher Professionalism The role of –Governments –Teacher education institutes –Schools –Teachers

5 Marco Snoek EU, education and the teacher

6 Marco Snoek The open method of coordination EU has ambitions but no authority in the area of education How to influence national policies: OMC –Normative: Defining targets and indicators –Organizing benchmarks and rankings –Support and direction through policy papers and council conclusions Common European Principles Improving teacher education Key competences for life long learning Professional development on teachers and school leaders (Nov2009) –Focus on mutual or peer learning: sharing policy practices

7 Marco Snoek

8 Low achievers in reading

9 Marco Snoek Benchmarks for teachers Develop indicators that better reflect the issues involved in improving education and training for teachers and their recruitment, and report on progress in the quality of teacher education through the biennial reports on the Education and Training 2010 programme (Improving the quality of TE, EC2007) TALIS 2009 –Engagement in CPD and in progressive forms of collaboration higher self- efficacy and use of a wider array of methods –Addressing teachers attitudes, beliefs and practices can lead to considerable improvement in teaching and learning, rather through individualised support for teachers than whole-school/system-wide interventions. –55% of the teachers: wish for more professional development (in areas like special learning needs, ICT teaching skills, student behaviour) –Where teachers paid for their own development, they tended to do more. –The greatest perceived impact of CPD activities is in teacher research and qualification programmes –High unmet needs: 42% of teachers report a lack of suitable professional development on offer.

10 Marco Snoek Professional development of teachers and school leaders (Eur. Council, Nov2009) Need for A clear profile for perspective teachers Teachers that take greater responsibility in their LLL A coherent continuum of LLL With induction programmes for all new teachers Sufficient needs-based CPD opportunities Including advanced programmes and engagement in pedagogical research Strengthened learning mobility and networks Regular feedback on performances

11 Marco Snoek A topic for peer learning: Cluster Teacher & Trainers Aims to develop a common understanding of success factors for the improvement of policy-making and the implementation of reform; to identify and disseminate key conclusions which can be fed into policy-making and implementation at the national level and European level. Through Peer learning activities (PLAs) How to get from goals to policy to practice?

12 Marco Snoek Structure of PLAs 7 Thematic peer learning activities: Intensive (4 days), intensive & small scale 8 – 10 interested countries Policy makers, researchers & practitioners Policy examples and reflections on general underlying policy issues Next practices?

13 Marco Snoek Continuous Professional Development

14 Marco Snoek Continuous Professional Development Lifelong learning: pre-service, induction, in-service Focus on classroom teaching, subjects and outcomes Active involvement: curriculum development, new strategies, research Facilitating and promoting CPD (time/salaries) Roles and responsibilities: ministry, schools, teachers, teacher education

15 Marco Snoek School as Learning Communities

16 Marco Snoek School as Learning Communities CPD is not an isolated and individual responsibility and activity Learning cultures within schools; role models for pupils Learners autonomy, room for experiments Communities of student teachers, beginning teachers and experienced teachers Focus on pupils performances Supported and facilitated by schools, ministry, Inspectorate, TEI

17 Marco Snoek Relationships between Teacher Education Institutes and Schools

18 Marco Snoek Relationships between Teacher Education Institutes and Schools Partnerships to provide the best education for pupils: Focus on –improving methods for teaching and learning, –raising the quality of teachers, and –developing knowledge about teaching and learning through research Partnerships as support systems: Integrated and powerful learning environment for student teachers and teachers Intentional steering by the government giving room for local differences and variations Focus on long term partnerships, sustainability, quality assurance Identify benefits for schools, TEI, (student) teachers, the system All schools or selected schools?

19 Marco Snoek Policies on the Induction of new teachers Teacher

20 Marco Snoek Policies on the Induction of new teachers Induction is the period at the beginning of a teachers career in which beginning teachers, having completed their period of initial teacher education, first assume full professional responsibility for learners. A effective induction programme –Bridges (and gives feedback to) initial teacher education and CPD –Provides personal support, social support, professional support and emotional support –can be a catalyst for the further development of the school as a learning community, and for increasing the schools collective learning potential. –Requires adequate qualities and competence of all the actors (with emphasis on mentors and schoolleaders)

21 Marco Snoek Common Themes A well educated profession (at masters level?) Teachers Lifelong Learning –Importance of competences & standards –Support systems Ownership, self-esteem & self-accountability (extended professionalism) Leadership (of school leaders and teachers)

22 Marco Snoek Partnerships between Education & Training and the workplace Trust: support versus control Policies for the whole system and long term planning The quality of teacher educators Steering and autonomy Common Themes

23 Marco Snoek Exciting new insights? Maybe not, but … Collaborative learning of policymakers, researchers and practicioners, bridging polcy and practice Input to question and improve existing policies Peer learning on a national level? (Leadership academy in Austria)

24 Marco Snoek Perspectives on teacher professionalism I am g reat

25 Marco Snoek Teacher professionalism: a combined effort TEACHERPROFESSIONALISM Governments Teachers Teacher education Schools & schoolleaders

26 Marco Snoek Teachers and schoolleaders: Conflicting spheres SchoolleaderTeacher Growing autonomyDecreasing autonomy? Conflicting spheres (Hanson, 1976): Keep the spheres of the schoolleader and the professional seperated …Or create equal partners and a professional debate … Demands on the professionalism of teachers!

27 Marco Snoek Restricted ProfessionalityExtended Professionality Skills derived from experienceSkills derived from a mediation between experience and theory Perspective limited to the immediate in time and place Perspective embracing the broader social context of education Workplace events perceived in isolationWorkplace events perceived in relation to policies and goals Introspective with regard to methodsMethods compared with those of colleagues and with reports of practice Value placed on autonomyValue placed on professional collaboration Limited involvement in non immediate professional activities High involvement in non immediate professional activities (eg networks, research, professional associations) Infrequent reading of professional literatureRegular reading of professional literature Involvement in professional development limited and confined to practical courses Involvement in professional development considerable and includes learning of theoretical nature Work seen as an intuitive activityWork seen as a rational activity

28 Marco Snoek Need for a strong teacher force? Government interference ? Teachers and the government The outstanding characteristic of the extended professional is a capacity for autonomous professional self-development through systematic self-study, through the study of the work of other teachers and through the testing of ideas by classroom research procedures (Stenhouse, 1975: 144). When the knowledge base is organized outside the members of the profession themselves, it will not only have a negative infuence on the quality of education. It will also be the end of pretending that the teaching profession is a real profession. (Korver, 2007).

29 Marco Snoek What qualities do extended professionals need ? Leadership (Suleiman & Moore, Hargreaves) System thinking (Senge, Fullan) Quality awareness (Hoyle) Professional Learning Communities (Hord, Senge, Hargreaves) Classroom research (Stenhouse, Cochran-Smith & Lytle) Entrepreneurship: an individuals ability to turn ideas into action, including creativity, innovation and risk taking, as well as the ability to plan and manage projects in order to achieve objectives and to seize opportunities (EC, 2006) External awareness

30 Marco Snoek Teacher professionalism: the role of … TEACHERPROFESSIONALISM Governments Teachers Teacher education Schools & schoolleaders Need for constructice alignment

31 Marco Snoek Traditional model of teacher learning: Initiatives by individual teachers In-service programmes provided by the government Focussed on individual professional quality Successful programmes involve teachers in learning activities that are similar to ones they will use with their students, and encourage the development of teachers learning communities. A key strategy involves finding ways for teachers to share their expertise and experience more systematically. There is growing interest in ways to build cumulative knowledge across the profession, for example by strengthening connections between research and practice and encouraging schools to develop as learning organisations.OECD, 2005 Models for professional development

32 Marco Snoek Government perspective The use of standards Level of detail of standards Ownership of standards Steering or supporting TEACHERLEARNING Governments Teachers Teacher education Schools & schoolleaders

33 Marco Snoek Policy makers on teacher quality: Comparing national documents Comparing 4 European policy documents –Teachers matter (OECD) –Common principles (Eur Comm) –Improving the quality of TE (Eur Comm) –Teacher Education in Europe (ETUCE) 9 country documents with formal teacher standards (Be/Fl, Cz, Gr, NL, No, Pol, Port, Slov, Sw, UK/Eng)

34 Marco Snoek Outcomes 1 Application of most documents is limited to teacher education curricula Half of the national documents: involvement of wide variety of stakeholders EU-level: little input from stakeholders Impact of the stakeholders input? Categories vary: –Main tasks of a teacher –The context of work –Taxonomy of knowledge (K-S-A) 1 to 2 pages (3 countries), 5 – 8 pages (3 countries), 16 – 21 pages (2 countries)

35 Marco Snoek Outcomes 2 Main headings for teacher quality vary considerably Most common: –Ped-did competence – effective teaching –Co-operation/partnership –Reflection and CPD Unique in EU documents: –International co-operation –Co-operation with other schools –Professional autonomy –Working with knowledge

36 Marco Snoek The government perspective A shared language is missing! On a national and on a European level One standard versus room for diversity? –Schools and their local contexts and needs are different. –Teachers are different. Quality indicators for teachers should reflect the collaborative nature of teaching (ATEE, 2006). Do government policies strengthen or hinder the (extended) professionalism of teachers (constructive alignment)? –The need for the professional involvement of and ownership by teachers. (ATEE, 2006). –The pitfall to take over responsibilities that teachers should take care of. –Instruments for control or for development? Involvement of teachers in the policy debate? (McKinsey, PISA, OECD scenarios,. …)

37 Marco Snoek School perspective Do schools create the conditions for a strong and professional teacher force, fostering, ownership, leadership and entrepreneurship of teachers? –In their structures and conditions –In their human resource policies –… TEACHERLEARNING Governments Teachers Teacher education Schools & schoolleaders Individual professionalism Collective professionalism ControlTrust ?

38 Marco Snoek Teacher perspective a distinction between those who talk and those who are talked about … Teachers views on teacher standards Willing and prepared? Accountability? TEACHERLEARNING Governments Teachers Teacher education Schools & schoolleaders

39 Marco Snoek Teachers views on teacher quality Comenius Project Identifying Teacher Quality Development of reflectiontools focussing on the concept of teacher quality Questionnaire during the pilots: What do you identify as the 10 most essential teacher qualities? 402 responents ( 343 teachers & student teachers), 8 countries (Cz, Gr, NL, Pol, Por, Slov., Sw, UK/Eng)

40 Marco Snoek

41 Overlaps & differences PorEngSwGreSloPolCzNL Portugal 2231320 England2 520234 Sweden25 21012 Greece322 3322 Slovenia1013 311 Poland32033 41 Czech231214 2 Netherlands0422112

42 Marco Snoek Emphasis on categories

43 Marco Snoek

44 Conclusions Strong emphasis on personal qualities (fair/honest, patient, creative, understanding, open, empathetic, humorous, consequent) More conceptual consensus exists on the knowledge category

45 Marco Snoek Willing and prepared Are teachers willing and prepared to take the responsibility? Schoolcultures are dominated by laissez-faire Teachers hardly address each other? If teachers wont do it, others will …! Professional development connected to professional accountability! a right and a responsibility!

46 Marco Snoek Teacher education perspective Do we emphasize extended professionalism in the curricula in TE? Do we emphasize personal qualities in the curricula in TE? What about professionalism of teacher educators (being role models)? TEACHERLEARNING Governments Teachers Teacher education Schools & schoolleaders

47 Marco Snoek And IPDA??? Policy makers and civil servants? School leaders Return of the teacher? While the debate is dominated by educational experts. Where are teachers in IPDA???

48 Marco Snoek References ATEE (2006). The quality of teachers. Recommendations on the development of indicators to identify teacher quality. Brussels, ATEE. European Commission Cluster Teachers and Trainers. Reports from PLAs: European Council (2009) Council conclusions on the professional development of teachers and school leaders. 1.pdf 1.pdf Identifying Teacher Quality: Comenius project on the development of reflection tools: OECD (2009). Teaching and Learning International Survey TALIS. Snoek, M. (2009). Policy development in teacher education through peer learning of policy makers. Paper presented at the International Conference on Teacher Education and Development Udaipur, India 23-25 February 2009. eninnoveren/documenten/India-paper-Snoek.doc eninnoveren/documenten/India-paper-Snoek.doc Snoek, M. et al. (2009). European Confusion on teacher quality:How do formal documents in European Member states identify teacher quality? Draft paper presented at the ATEE conference Mallorca, 2009.European Confusion on teacher quality:How do formal documents in European Member states identify teacher quality?

49 Marco Snoek Reader at the Hogeschool van Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences Institute of Education

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