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India & The Indian Ocean Basin

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1 India & The Indian Ocean Basin
451 to 1600 C.E.

2 Classical India Recap: Two occurrences where India
was unified into a single state: 1) The Mauryan Empire: The first rulers to bring most of India together politically were the Mauryans, who created an empire lasting from 324 to 184 B.C.E. Mauryan India was characterized by a strong military and an extensive trade network, which stretched all the way to Mesopotamia and the eastern parts of the Roman Empire. A key good was cotton. The best known of the Mauryan emperors was Ashoka. A great warrior as a youth, Ashoka became sickened by war after one of his greatest victories. He converted to Buddhism after meeting Buddha, and became an advocate of peace and tolerance. He spread those ideals throughout India by means of his Rock and Pillar Acts. These acts…….. He encouraged trade with China, especially for it’s silk and opened trade routes to the north. Ashoka was admired for his justice and wisdom, and he remains famous for his efforts to create harmony between Buddhists, Hindus, and the followers of India’s other religions.

3 2) The Gupta Empire: In 184 B. C. E
2) The Gupta Empire: In 184 B.C.E., The Mauryan Empire collapsed, du to attacks by outside enemies. For the next 500 years, India reverted to a state of political disunity. Not until 320 C.E. did another large empire rise up: The Gupta Empire, which lasted until 550 C.E. and controlled most of northern and central India. The Gupta Empire was smaller and less centralized than the Mauryan, but it thrived culturally and economically. Although the Gupta rulers were Hindu, they practiced religious toleration. Gupta India traded with china, Southeast Asia, and even the eastern Mediterranean. Gupta scholars created the decimal system used today, along with the concept of pi and zero. Like the Mauryan, the Gupta emperors fell as a result of outside pressure, especially from the White Hun attacks on the northwestern frontier. From then until after 1000 C.E., India would remain decentralized. Then Muslim invaders would begin to move into the subcontinent, doing much to shape Indian politics and culture after 1000 C.E.

4 Postclassical India Though politically disunited, India remained a coherent and distant society as a result of the caste system and the Hindu religion values throughout the subcontinent during this era. In the 7th century Islam also began to attract popular following in India, & after the 11th century Islam deeply influenced Indian society alongside the caste system and Hinduism.

5 Islamic & Hindu Kingdoms
The Gupta dynasty rulers resisted nomadic invaders pressures and preserved order throughout much of the Indian subcontinent until 451 C.E. when the White Huns from central Asia invaded and disrupted the Gupta administration. By the mid-sixth century the Gupta state had collapsed, and political authority quickly dissolved to invaders. 16th century, a Turkish people known as the Mughals extended their authority and their empire to most of the subcontinent, further politically dividing the land.

6 Overview Northern and Southern India followed different political trajectories after fall of the Gupta empire. Local states in the south contested for power and territory, and northern India became a region of continuous tension and sporadic wars. Nomadic Turkish-speaking peoples from central Asia frequently took advantage and forced their way into India. Eventually, they became completely absorbed into Indian Society. (Caste System- Jati)

7 Introduction of Islam to Northern India
Merchants: Muslim merchants took their faith to coastal regions in both northern and southern India. Muslim Merchants & their descendants dominated trade and transportation networks between India and western lands from the 7th to 15th centuries. Muslim merchants formed small communities in all the major coastal cities in India where they played prominent roles in Indian businesses, commercial life, married local women and found places for themselves within Indian society.

8 Introduction of Islam to Northern India
Military: In 711, an expedition conquered Sind: incorporated it as a province of the expanding Umayyad empire. Mid-century, Sind passed into the hands of the Abbasid caliphs. Though apart of the Islamic world, Much of its population remained Hindu and Buddhist. Fighting between Arab administrators offered opportunities for local elites to reassert Hindu authority over much of Sind, yet the region remained under the jurisdiction of the caliphs until the collapse of the Abbasid dynasty in 1258.

9 Introduction of Islam to Northern India
Migration & invasions of Turkish-speaking people from central Asia. 10th Century, several Turkish groups had become acquainted with Islam through their dealings with the Abbasids and converted to the faith. Some of these Muslim Turks entered the Abbasid realm as mercenary soldiers or migrated into Ghazni (Afghanistan), where they established a Muslim state. Mahmud of Ghazni, leader of Turks in Afghanistan, mounted seventeen raiding expeditions into India between 1001 and 1027 C.E.

10 Spread of Islam - Mahmud plundered the wealth stored in the many well-endowed temples, demolished hundred of sites associated with Hindu or Buddhist faiths and established mosques or Islamic shrines in their place.

11 and place it under Islamic rule.
Not interested in conquering India, In the late 12th Century, Mahmud successors mounted a systematic campaign to conquer Northern India and place it under Islamic rule. By the early 13th Century, they had conquered most of the Hindu kingdoms in Northern India and established an Islamic state known as the sultanate of Delhi. Adhai-din ka Jhonpra

12 The sultans established and ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1526.
Politically, the Delhi Sultanate will expand, but will eventually shrink due to southern regions breaking away and becoming independent states. (Some Muslim, Some Hindu) 1398, the Central Asian warlord Timur attacked and captured Delhi. After a year of plundering, the city was in ruins and Timur departed. The sultanate barely survived.


14 The sultans of Delhi was amongst the most powerful in the Islamic world, yet the authority of the sultans did not extend beyond Delhi. Raided the Deccan region, but could not overcome Hindu resistance No permanent bureaucracy Northern India: Imposed very little Islamic political or military authority on a land populated mostly of Hindus Discord amongst the sultan’s court: of the 35 Sultans of Delhi were assassinated. Nevertheless, the sultans of Delhi sponsored Islam and helped to establish a secure place for the faith and culture within India. (Art , Literature & Architecture)

15 Production and Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin
Agriculture in the Monsoon World Because of the rhythms of the monsoons, irrigation was essential for the maintenance of an agricultural society. Spring & Summer: Warm, moist winds from the southwest bring most of India’s rainfall. Autumn & Winter: Cool and very dry winds blow from the northeast Indian lands required a good watering by the southern monsoon, supplemented by irrigation during the dry months. Light rain during the spring and summer months or short supplies of water for irrigation led to drought & famine. Dams, reservoirs, canals, wells, and tunnels appeared throughout the south. Reservoirs would catch the rains of the spring and summer months and store it until the dry season.


17 Increase in Population
Year Population 600 C.E. 53,000,000 800 C.E. 64,000,000 1000 C.E. 79,000,000 1500 C.E. 105,000,000 increased productivity, caused India’s population to grow steadily Resulting in the concentration of people in cities. During the 14th century, Delhi had a population of about 400,000 2nd only to Cairo among Muslim cities. .

18 Trade and the Silk Road Even after the collapse of the classical societies in Persia, China, India, and the Mediterranean basin, the silk road trade routes survived. New imperial states reestablished order throughout Eurasia and North Africa in the 6th Century, people within the eastern hemisphere resumed their crossing of cultural boundary lines in the interest of trade & communication

19 Umayyad and Abbasid rulers maintained the roads
1)Military Expeditions and Invasions. Excellent routes for military forces and administrative officials extending from China in the east to the Mediterranean in the west. 2)Muslim merchants 3)Missionaries - quick and efficient travel: Buddhism 4) Migration

20 Indian Ocean Trade Network
Extensive Trade Network linking East Africa, Arabian Peninsula, India, Indonesia, China,& Japan. East Africa Gold, Slaves, Ivory, Animal Hides Arabian Peninsula Arabian Horses, Textiles, Carpet, Glass India Cotton, Spices, Salt, Elephants Indonesia Spices (Cinnamon), Exotic Woods China Silk, Porcelain, Paper Japan Major Source of Silver

21 Trade in the Indian Ocean
Promoted more intense cross-cultural communications. Maritime trade was built on the political stability, economic expansion, and demographic growth Trade in bulk indicated a movement towards economic integration Societies of the Indian Ocean basin concentrated on cultivating crops or producing goods for export while importing foods or goods that they could not produce Central location of Indian ports became the principal clearinghouse of trade in the Indian Ocean basin & became cosmopolitan centers. (Emporiums) Hindus, Buddhists, Muslims, Jews, & others who inhabited the Indian port cities did business w/ counterparts from all over the Eastern Hemisphere.

22 Major Port Cities of India Ocean Trade Network:
East Africa- Mombasa Arabian Peninsula- Mecca India- Calicut & Gujarati of Cambay * Gujarati: Major Muslim city on W. Coast of India China- Canton (Guangzhou)

23 Homework Read and study next two slides
Answer Questions on the last three slides

24 The Meeting of Hindu & Islamic Traditions Worksheet Notes
Caste and Society The changes of the postclassical era brought a series of changes for the Indian caste system. (Migration, Islamic presence, urbanization, economic development) The caste system has never been an unchangeable structure; individuals and groups adjust and adapt it to new circumstances creating a more complex system. In the absence of a strong central government in India, the caste system maintained order in local communities by providing guidance on individuals’ roles in society and their relationships with others. As migrants pursued opportunities in India, they gained recognition as distinct groups under the umbrella of the caste system. The caste system influenced the lives of most people by helping to order their work and relationships with other workers. Most identified with their sub-caste (jati). As merchants and manufactures became important in the larger economy, they organized powerful guilds to represent their interests. Due to their wealth and contribution to the economic health, Merchant guilds held a lot of political and economical influence. Guild sub-caste rank depended on the merchants or artisans specialization. (Silk, Cotton, Spice Merchants had their own guilds vs. Iron, Steel, Leather Artisans having their separate guilds.)

25 Indian Muslim Women vs. Indian Hindu Women
The caste system became securely established in southern India as well. The emergence of merchant & craft guilds in southern regions in strengthened the caste system since guild members usually organized as a sub-caste. By the 11th Century, caste had become the principle basis of social organization in Southern India. Indian cultural landscape underwent a thorough transformation during the postclassical era as well. Buddhism will loose much of their popular following, but won’t completely disappear. In 1196 Muslim forces invaded and overran the city of Nalanda; looted and torched Buddhist schools, libraries, and shrines where thousands of Buddhist were either killed or sent into exile. After 1000 C.E., Hindu and Islamic traditions increasingly dominate the cultural and religious life in India and in some instances will even merge. (Architecture, Art, Laws, etc.) Indian Muslim Women vs. Indian Hindu Women Hindu & Islamic Similarities Hindu & Islamic Differences Both promised salvation to devout individuals. Hinduism is polytheistic vs. Islam is monotheistic. Both promised a form of an after-life. Hinduism believed in reincarnation as an after-life. Islam followed a strict doctrine vs. Hindu’s variety of types of worship. All followers of Islam were equal vs. the Hindu caste system.

26 Answer the following questions:
In the 7th Century, King Harsha temporarily restored unified rule in most of northern India and sought to revive imperial authority. Homework Answer the following questions: How old was he when he took the throne in the lower Ganges Valley? What was King Harsha’s reputation? List 2 of his accomplishments that led to this reputation. What caused the collapse of Harsha’s Kingdom?

27 Homework What is a monsoon?
How might monsoons affected a region’s agriculture?

28 Homework Name the 3M’s of how Islam traveled into India.
1)M_______ 2) M_______ 3) M________ Out of the 3 routes, explain which (you believe)had the greatest impact or influence in Indian Society.

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