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Community Cohesion: Issues, Practice and Geography Sir Keith Ajegbo.

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Presentation on theme: "Community Cohesion: Issues, Practice and Geography Sir Keith Ajegbo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Community Cohesion: Issues, Practice and Geography Sir Keith Ajegbo

2 Why Community Cohesion Now (1) 7/7 and the fear of terrorism and extremism related to religion Trevor Phillips: Sleepwalking to segregation Changing patterns of immigration-immigration as a major political issue – fears around the BNP and local council elections Fears around teenage gang killings, teenage pregnancy, binge drinking and community relationship Concerns about the achievement gap of pupils on free school meals including white underachievement.

3 Why Community Cohesion Now (2) In 1965 75 million people lived outside the home country, now 180 m 600,000 Britons live in Spain, more in other countries (200,000) in NZ; 3m with second homes 25m tourists to the UK, 70m from UK to global destinations Globalisation in many forms: internet, international students, brands etc

4 Community Cohesion and Geography Aspects of community cohesion: Migration Urbanisation Globalisation Tourism Insularity

5 Review for the Secretary of State How is ethnic, religious and cultural diversity addressed in the school curriculum? Should British modern, social and cultural history be the 4 th pillar of citizenship? Response: while schools should celebrate difference they must also explore what brings us together, what we share and how we create communities.

6 What are schools for? What are the wider responsibilities of school to society? Childrens Plan: Schools at the heart of their community Development of pupils as active and responsible citizens Creating more cohesive and resilient communities

7 Schooling and the big themes of the 21 st Century What is the relationship between a schools vision and the big themes of eg: identity and cultural diversity, community participation, globalisation. How does the world impact on: Every Child Matters, Personalised Learning, Citizenship Education, Extended Schooling, Community Cohesion? Given the close relationship between geography and the big themes what impact does the subject have on the schools vision and ethos?

8 What are the implications of community? School community Community in which the school is located Religious community UK community European community Global community Presumably within these interconnections lies a large part of a relevant geography curriculum. Geography helps to tease out the relationship between local national and global identities and interrelationships.

9 The Big Themes Religion and non religion (The relationship between religion and diasporic communities. The spread of fundamentalism. Changing face of cities and social cohesion)) Ethnicity and culture (The relationship between migration and cultural identity. The mixing of cultures. The relationship between race and place go back home) Socio economic status (White working class communities. Insularity) How do geographers deal with controversial issues?

10 Aspects of Community Cohesion Teaching, Learning and the Curriculum Equity and excellence Engagement and extended services Concentrate on teaching, learning and the curriculum

11 Teaching, Learning and the Curriculum (1) Perspectives of some BME students They see Africa as poor, Asia as flooded and England as snobby whites and poor blacks Im black I live in London-thats my home. My parents are from the Caribbean but Im really African. Im a Christian, but Im E7 -thats where I hang theyre my people. Thats who I am. Within those quotes are political, socio economic, environmental, place and identity issues all of which relate to geography.

12 Teaching, learning and the curriculum (2) Perspectives of some white students: I do feel sometimes that there is no white history. Theres either black history month or they do Muslims and Sikhs. Youre bored with it, youre just British. A quote from a DEA discussion paper Questioning Education@ The Ipsos MORI research (1955 secondary students 2007) found that 76% of black students and 66% of Asian students were positive about different kinds of people living together whilst only 47% of white students were

13 Challenges: leadership The conclusion in our report was that issues of race and identity are often not high on schools agendas. Need to be regardless of location and intake. DEA report Questioning Education on global learning Leadership, as demonstrated by the head, senior managers and governors sets the tone for everything in schools A culture is needed in which the leadership team demonstrates global learning through their own practice but also enable everyone to bring their own creativity to the vision. Where the agenda is taken forward by one or two committed teachers but not by the leadership team it tends not to be embedded across the whole school.

14 Challenges: teachers 36% of teachers felt well equipped to teach in multi cultural schools following their Teacher Training. (TDA survey 2006) Surely all geography teachers should feel equipped to teach in multi cultural schools or about multi culturalism in white schools Geography teachers need to be at the heart of the schools policy on dealing with controversial issue. Migration, race, religion, cultural clashes, stereotyping are unavoidable in discussions of place and space.

15 Challenges: the curriculum Geography inspires pupils to become global citizens Geography inspires pupils to think about their place in the world Geographers have a strong sense of their own place in the world as well as other peoples cultures and traditions and how these interrelate Geography has the capacity to lead on the whole curriculum dimensions of: identity and cultural diversity, community participation and the global dimension and sustainable development.

16 Citizenship education and geography Geography in schools: changing practice With regard to citizenship, geography has a vital role to play, as David Bell identified in his Roscoe lecture: …a partnership between geography and citizenship…. will energise the former and give substance to the latter. Why are there not more geography departments which teach sustained and progressive units of work with citizenship objectives, making a substantial contribution to the citizenship agenda overall?...Citizenship can be a breath of fresh air, making geography relevant, exciting and most important of all, empowering pupils so that they know how they can make a difference.

17 Identity and diversity: living together in the UK In our report we recommended a 4th strand for citizenship education. Rationale: Britain has committed itself to certain values- respect for the law, democratic political structures, values of mutual tolerance, equal rights. These should be subject to discussion and debate through looking at aspects of modern Britain and its history. The aspects of modern Britain and its history The UK as a multi national state. (Issues of place: Welshness, Scottishness) Immigration, Commonwealth and the legacy of Empire (Historical geography- the changing nature of us and them and of whiteness and blackness) The European Union (How do Poles now see Britishness?) Extending the franchise (eg the legacy of slavery, universal suffrage, equal opportunities legislation) ( relationship to urbanisation and globalisation)

18 Curriculum support QCA Cross curriculum dimensions (revised 1st September) Identity and Cultural Diversity Case studies

19 Who Do We Think We Are? The week in June attracted around 500 schools. Website: Vast array of resources at sharp end of issues: School and community Relationships, belonging and faith History and settlement Britishness, national identity/values; 2012 Olympics Organised by RGS, History Association, Citizenship Foundation

20 Materials on the website London 2012: keystage 3 geography and citizenship Exploring archives Global dimensions Moving Here Young diasporas Building up case studies: eg Enfield primary school to compare the ethnic and religious composition of a year 5 class with Enfield as an area.

21 Schools Linking Network Started in Bradford following 2001 disturbances 1) Gateway: 100 schools registered 2) Waves: Wave1 3 pilot authorities, Wave 2 10 authorities, Wave 3 10 authorities Sponsored by DCSF, money for authorities involved + CPD for teachers

22 Equity and excellence/Engagement and extended services Equity and excellence: Very few schools have identified opportunities within the curriculum to promote the positive aspects of gypsy culture. Engagement and extended services: At a conference focussed on raising achievement of Somali pupils 2 schools (Richard Atkins Primary in Lambeth, Little Ilford Secondary in Newham) indicated how they used extended schooling to raise achievement and build community cohesion.

23 The Humanities and Social Sciences Diploma Geography features strongly in the new Humanities and Social Sciences diploma for teaching in 2011. Consultation on the criteria for awarding bodies starts next week with events around the country. Tell us what you think at

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