Presentation on theme: "Carper (1978) Fundamental patterns of knowing"— Presentation transcript:
1 Carper (1978) Fundamental patterns of knowing Knowledge development for a practice disciplineI have been asked to give a brief overview of Carper’s fundamental patterns of knowing and demonstrate how Chinn and Kramer have developed these patterns of knowing by adding emancipatory knowledge to the original theory.
2 The problem of Nursing as a practice discipline Nursing involves processes of dynamic interactionsNurses in practice know more than they can communicate to othersHistorically what nurses know has not been communicated wellEmpirical knowledge only partially reflects nursing knowledgeThis can be improved when all forms of knowing are integrated and valuedChinn and Kramer believe that the problem with nursing as a practice discipline is nurses know more than they can communicate to others
3 Why develop patterns of knowing The aim of Carper’s theory was to:Formally express nursing knowledgeProvide a professional and discipline identityConvey to others what nursing contributes to healthcareCreate expert and effective nursing practiceThe aim of Carper’s theory
4 Knowing and knowledge Knowing and knowledge Knowing refers to the way of perceiving and understanding self and the worldKnowledge refers to knowing that is expressed in a form that can be shared and communicated to othersCarper, Chinn and Krammer come from the premise that nursing involves a dynamic process of interactions that can only be understood through the fundamental patterns of knowingThey als define knowing and knowledge
5 Nursing’s fundamental patterns of knowing Carper (1978)EthicsPersonal knowingAestheticsEmpiricsChinn and Kramer (2008)Emancipatory KnowingThe praxis of nursingCarper’s original work is quite old but within the different theories of nursing it has stood the test of time. Carper has 4 fundamental patterns of knowing. The additional, pattern of knowing emancipatory knowing was not added until 2008
6 Ethics: the component of moral knowledge in nursing Guides and directs how nurses conduct their practiceRequiresExperiential knowledge of social valuesEthical reasoningFocus is on:Matters of obligation, what ought to be doneRight , wrong and responsibilityEthical codes of nursingConfronting and resolving conflicting values, norms, interests or principlesI am sure you do not need me to explain ethics as a pattern of knowing
7 Sources of Ethical knowing Nursing’s ethical codes and professional standardsAn understanding of different philosophical positionsConsequentialismDeontologyDutySocial justice
8 Concerned with becoming self-aware Personal knowing: acceptance of self that is grounded in self-knowledge and confidenceConcerned with becoming self-awareSelf–awareness that grows over time through interactions with othersUsed when nurses engage in the therapeutic use of self in practiceScientific competence, moral/ethical practice, insight and experience of personal knowingPersonal reflectionInformed by the response of othersOpenness to experiencePersonal knowing is concerned with…
9 Personal knowingPersonal knowing needs to be integrated or reconciled with professional responsibilitiesPersonal Knowing is the basis of the therapeutic use of self in the nurse patient relationshipPerceiving self feelings, and prejudices within the situation
10 Aesthetic knowing: the art of nursing Expressed through:Actions, bearing, conduct, attitudes, narrative and interactionKnowing what to do without conscious deliberationInvolves:Deep appreciation of the meaning of a situationMoves beyond the surface of a situationOften shared without conscious exchange of wordsTransformative art/actsBrings together all the elements of a nursing care situation to create a meaningful wholeAesthetic knowing the art of nursing is expresses….
11 Aesthetic knowingPerceiving the nature of a clinical situation and interpreting this informationTo respond with skilled actionIt uses the nurses intuition and empathyIs based on the skill of the nurse in a given situation
12 Empirics: the science of nursing Based on the assumption that what is known is accessible through the physical senses: seeing, touching and hearing.Reality exists and truths about it can be understoodA pattern of knowing that draws on traditional ideas of scienceExpressed in practice as scientific competenceCompetent action grounded in scientific knowledge including theories and formal descriptionInvolves conscious problem solving and logical reasoningNursing theoryFinally empirics the science of nursing that is based….
13 Empirical knowing Positivist science Source of this knowledge Knowledge is systematically organised into general laws and theoriesSource of this knowledgeResearchTheory
14 Emancipatory knowing (Chinn and Kramer) Emancipatory knowing addresses the social and political context of nursing and healthcare and critiques the four fundamental patterns of knowingIt recognises serious social barriers to health and well-beingEmancipatory knowing requires an understanding of the nature of knowledgePraxis is the process of emancipatory knowing. It requires both critical reflection and actionThe additional fundamental pattern of knowing was added because it is said to reflect nursing’s understanding of the social context in which care is given affects the health and well-being of individuals and groups.
15 Fundamental patterns of knowing EmpiricEmancipatoryEthicalPersonalThis slide puts the five fundamental patterns of knowing together showing how they are 5 individual but interlinking patterns.Aesthetic
16 Methods of turning knowing into knowledge Problem based learningAn instructional method in which students work in small groupsUsed to gain knowledge and acquire problem-solving skills.Clinical SupervisionAn exchange between practicing professionals to enable the development of professional knowledge and skillsStructured reflection on practiceJohn’s (1994) model of structured reflection used Carper’s fundamental patterns of knowingSection 5 of the model considers learning gained from the experience. It asks “how has this experience changed my ways of knowing?”Empirics/ Aesthetics/Ethics/PersonalJust as food for thought the literature suggests these methods to turn knowing into knowledge