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The Biosphere – Chapter 3

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1 The Biosphere – Chapter 3
How are nutrients important in living systems. Explain how matter moves among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem. 2. Explain how energy flows through living systems and how efficient is the transfer of energy among organisms. 3. Explain the different levels of organization ecologists study Period 1: Period 7 Quiz: Thur Oct 2nd Quiz: Mon Oct 6th Lab: Thur Oct 2nd (Book Pg 81) Lab: Mon Oct 6th (Book Pg 81) Test: Mon Oct 6th Test: Wed Oct 8th Period 4 Quiz: Fri Oct 3rd Lab: Fri Oct 3rd (Book Pg 81) Test: Tues Oct 7th

2 What is Ecology? The interactions of organisms with one another and with their physical surroundings

3 That part of the Earth in which life exists
Biosphere That part of the Earth in which life exists

4 Levels of organization
Species: group of organisms that Breed and produce fertile offspring

5 Populations Key: Group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.

6 Organisms living together in an ecosystem
Community Organisms living together in an ecosystem

7 Ecosystem Physical features Abiotic factors = physical features
water sunlight, soil type rocks, temp. Biotic Factors = living organisms shark, fish, coral, tube worms, arthropods

8 Biome Key: Group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities.

9 Tundra Locations: Northern North America, Asia and Europe
Characteristics: Treeless biome Covered in mosses, lichens and grasses Animals migrate in summer to feed on plants Carnivores follow the food migrating Permafrost = Permanently frozen subsoil



12 Ecological Methods Keys: - Observing
* Collecting data to make an educated guess (hypothesis) - Experimenting * testing changes in natural ecosystems - Modeling * models help predict what could happen ecologically over a long period of time. (Global Warming)

13 Energy Flow Keys: Main source of energy? The Sun Autotrophs
Energy from the environment to fuel the production of simple into complex organic compounds Producers? Make their own food

14 Energy From the Sun Keys: Photosynthesis
Use solar energy to convert CO2 and H2O into O2 and C6H1206

15 Life Without Light Keys: Chemosynthesis
Use chemical energy to convert CO2 and H2O into chemical compound and C6H1206 Life Without Light

16 Consumers Keys: Acquire energy from other organisms Heterotrophs
Five types: Herbivores: Cows / Deer Plant eaters Carnivores: Snakes / owls Animal eaters Omnivores: Bears / crows Best of Both worlds Detritivores: Mites / earthworms Plant and animal remains Decomposers: Bacteria / fungi Break down organic Matter

17 Food Chain Keys: Transfer of energy by eating and being eaten

18 The Food Web Keys: Feeding Relationships among organisms

19 Trophic Levels Keys: Each step of the food chain or food Web.
Each consumer depends on the trophic level below for energy.

20 Ecological Pyramids Keys:
Diagram in your notes the following Ecological Pyramids. Three Types Energy Pyramid Biomass Pyramid Pyramid of Numbers Be able to define each pyramid Relate the pyramids to the different trophic levels.

21 Nutrient Cycles Keys: NUTRIENTS
Substances organisms need to sustain life. Build tissues and carry our life functions Biogeochemical cycles Passed between organisms and the environment




25 Class Assignment Keys: Finished by the end of Class. Assignment:
Worth 10 Points in HW category. Each notebook will be check before you leave. Assignment: Develop a flow chart that traces the: Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Water Cycle


27 Flow chart Example

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