2 NationGeographers’ definition: community of people with common ancestry, culture and territoryDoes not imply an independent political unite.g. Quebec; Acadians in Eastern Canada; “First Nations” throughout Canada
3 StateAn independent political unit holding sovereignty over a territory (Canada)Casually referred to as “country”United States of America: 50 theoretically independent units that chose to join together in 1 ‘State’
4 Nation-StatesState whose territory coincides with the area occupied by a single nationE.g. Iceland – all residents of the state are members of a single Icelandic nationvs. Canada – several different nations within the boundaries of the Canadian state
5 DemocracyIn a democracy, the government is elected by the people. Everyone who is eligible to vote has a chance to have their say over who runs the country. It is distinct from governments controlled by a particular social class or group (aristocracy; oligarchy) or by a single person (despotism; dictatorship; monarchy).A democracy is determined either directly or through elected representatives.
6 Monarchy A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor or empress. The ruling position can be passed on to the ruler’s heirs.In some traditional monarchies, the monarch has absolute power.But a constitutional monarchy, like the UK, also has a democratic government that limits the monarch's control.
7 DictatorshipA country ruled by a single leader. The leader has not been elected and may use force to keep control.In a military dictatorship, the army is in control.
8 CommunistIn a communist country, the government owns property such as businesses and farms.It provides its people's healthcare, education and welfare.
19 Economic SystemsEconomy: The production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people. Stuff and $!!!Economic System: How people produce and goods and services.How do we get stuff and $!!!
20 Traditional EconomyGoods and services are bartered. That is, they are exchanges without using money.
21 Command EconomyThe government owns the means of production and, in turn, sets production levels and pricing.
22 Market EconomySupply is determined by demand. Consumers and profit are the driving forces. Also called capitalism.
23 Mixed EconomyThis combination of command and market systems has capitalism as its base but also provides goods and services to all citizens.
24 Levels of Economic Activity Primary: Gathering raw materialsCut down the trees and mine the mineralsSecondary: Increase the value of raw materials by changing their formShape the pencil blanks and create the lead and eraserTertiary: Provide business or professional servicesSell the pencilsQuaternary: Provide information, management, and research servicesHelp the pencil company expand its customer base and advertising
25 Natural ResourcesMaterials occurring naturally on the earth that have economic value. This can only happen when technology and demand meet to transform resources into goods. Think gold and petroleum.
27 Economic Measures GNP – Gross National Product The total value of all goods and services produced by a countryGDP – Gross Domestic ProductThe total value of all goods and services produced within a countryPer Capita Income – Average amount of money earned by each personGNP/Poplulation