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Chapter 4:3 Political Geography.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4:3 Political Geography."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4:3 Political Geography

2 Nation Geographers’ definition: community of people with common ancestry, culture and territory Does not imply an independent political unit e.g. Quebec; Acadians in Eastern Canada; “First Nations” throughout Canada

3 State An independent political unit holding sovereignty over a territory (Canada) Casually referred to as “country” United States of America: 50 theoretically independent units that chose to join together in 1 ‘State’

4 Nation-States State whose territory coincides with the area occupied by a single nation E.g. Iceland – all residents of the state are members of a single Icelandic nation vs. Canada – several different nations within the boundaries of the Canadian state

5 Democracy In a democracy, the government is elected by the people. Everyone who is eligible to vote has a chance to have their say over who runs the country. It is distinct from governments controlled by a particular social class or group (aristocracy; oligarchy) or by a single person (despotism; dictatorship; monarchy). A democracy is determined either directly or through elected representatives.

6 Monarchy A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor or empress.
The ruling position can be passed on to the ruler’s heirs. In some traditional monarchies, the monarch has absolute power. But a constitutional monarchy, like the UK, also has a democratic government that limits the monarch's control.

7 Dictatorship A country ruled by a single leader. The leader has not been elected and may use force to keep control. In a military dictatorship, the army is in control.

8 Communist In a communist country, the government owns property such as businesses and farms. It provides its people's healthcare, education and welfare.

9 Checks and Balances

10 Characteristics of Nations -Size-

11 Characteristics of Nations -Shape-

12 Characteristics of Nations -Location-

13 Boundary Types Natural and Artificial

14 Chapter 4:4 Urban Geography

15 Urban Geography Differences between cities and rural areas Size
Commerce Social life and culture

16 Urbanization

17 Land Use Residential: Living space Mixed Use: Housing and business
Industrial: Manufacturing Commercial: Private business, buying and selling

18 Chapter 4:5 Economic Geography

19 Economic Systems Economy: The production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people. Stuff and $!!! Economic System: How people produce and goods and services. How do we get stuff and $!!!

20 Traditional Economy Goods and services are bartered. That is, they are exchanges without using money.

21 Command Economy The government owns the means of production and, in turn, sets production levels and pricing.

22 Market Economy Supply is determined by demand. Consumers and profit are the driving forces. Also called capitalism.

23 Mixed Economy This combination of command and market systems has capitalism as its base but also provides goods and services to all citizens.

24 Levels of Economic Activity
Primary: Gathering raw materials Cut down the trees and mine the minerals Secondary: Increase the value of raw materials by changing their form Shape the pencil blanks and create the lead and eraser Tertiary: Provide business or professional services Sell the pencils Quaternary: Provide information, management, and research services Help the pencil company expand its customer base and advertising

25 Natural Resources Materials occurring naturally on the earth that have economic value. This can only happen when technology and demand meet to transform resources into goods. Think gold and petroleum.

26 Infrastructure

27 Economic Measures GNP – Gross National Product
The total value of all goods and services produced by a country GDP – Gross Domestic Product The total value of all goods and services produced within a country Per Capita Income – Average amount of money earned by each person GNP/Poplulation

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