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Effective Practice in e-learning

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Presentation on theme: "Effective Practice in e-learning"— Presentation transcript:

1 Effective Practice in e-learning
Sarah Knight Programme Manager, JISC Development Group

2 Key Questions How can we enhance current knowledge about what constitutes ‘effective’ practice in e-learning? How can we support practitioners with their developments in the use of e-learning? How can we promote the development of terminology that will improve understanding and sharing of practice in e-learning? What are the current approaches to the design of e-learning activities and how can these be developed in the future to ensure that we are using sound pedagogical models?

3 e-learning Programme JISC works with post-16 and higher education by providing strategic guidance, advice and opportunities to use ICT to support teaching, learning, research and administration. The JISC Committee for Learning and Teaching (JCLT) is funding a new e-learning Programme to run until August 2007. The overarching aim of the e-learning Programme is to identify how e-learning might be used to facilitate and support learning and to advise on how these approaches might be effectively implemented. The Programme focuses on four areas: e-learning and Pedagogy; Technical Frameworks for e-learning; Innovation and Distributed e-learning.

4 Some Definitions Communities across post-16 and HE:
Practitioners – whose role it is to support, facilitate and direct student learning ILT Champions, e-Guides, educational developers and learning technologists Staff Developers Researchers into learning and e-learning Developers of e-learning related software, systems and standards E-learning – learning facilitated and supported through the use of ICT

5 A view of e-learning A Model of e-learning and e-living, Killen, Davies and Smith, adapted from the e-learning Fan, B Powell/J Scribbins, Demonstrating Transformation,

6 Effective e-learning? …or effective learning? Relevance Accessible Fun
Interactive Engaging Range of materials Stimulate Encourage feedback Motivate Enthusiastic teachers and receptive learners Encourage communication – peer-2-peer and peer-2-tutor Work at own pace Differentiation Individualised learning …or effective learning?

7 e-learning and Pedagogy
Overall aim: to ensure that e-learning as practised in UK post-16 and Higher Education is ‘pedagogically sound, learner-focused and accessible’. What this means in practice: To provide the post-16 and HE community with accurate, up-to-date, evidence- and research-based information about effective practice in the use of e-learning tools. To promote the application and development of e-learning tools and standards to better support effective practice. Practical outcomes which are relevant to practitioners, researchers and developers.

8 Two related themes Designing for Learning (Practitioner focus):
Models of learning and e-learning practitioner planning perspective Understanding and moving on practice Case studies of effective practice (14-19, FE, HE, ACL) Evaluating learning design tools e.g. Coppercore, Eduplone, LAMS, mindmapping… Practitioner consultation (14-19, FE, HE, ACL) Understanding my learning (Learner focus): learner perspective and learner differences Exploring the potential of e-portfolios Mapping effective assessment for e-learning Peer learning, collaboration and vicarious learning Learner consultation (14-19, FE, HE, ACL)

9 Models of learning and e-learning
Explore how different approaches to (e)learning can be represented and shared. Develop a general framework within which approaches can be evaluated and compared. Model/represent a limited number of approaches within this framework Provide tools to evaluate these approaches in specific learning contexts Advice and guidance for practitioners on effective use of e-learning

10 Understanding and moving on practice
Explore how practitioners make effective choices about e-learning Develop an understanding of how different resources support practitioners, e.g. Case studies, examples, ‘stories’, video-clips Guidelines, staff development materials Tools (e.g. LAMS) and toolkits/planners Practices e.g. mentoring, workshops Investigate which are effective in practice: Broad (e.g. survey, review of existing materials) Deep (e.g. interviews, personal case histories) Influence the way in which information/advice and guidance from the e-learning Programme is disseminated

11 … potential outcomes lesson plans/learning designs for different environments representations (e.g. video) of different approaches in use an e-learning planning tool a database of activities indexed to specific learning outcomes, contexts, or needs re-usable ‘activity sequences’ e.g. for use in a LAMS-type environment an online ‘knowledge garden’ in which participants contribute, refine and link e-learning concepts materials for use in staff development, e.g. integrated into FPP modules publication ‘Effective Practice in e-learning’ with supporting video clips for October 2004 development of more effective learning design tools and standards new digital library functions and services

12 Case studies of effective practice
Describe and evaluate a range of different approaches to e-learning: in a range of organisational contexts: 14-19, FE, ACL and HE Blended, face to face and virtual using a range of technical environments: specific uses of Virtual Learning Environments use of Learning Design tools (e.g LAMS, ReLOAD) use of modular tools (e.g. simulations, scenarios, activities, discipline-specific tools…) Publication ‘Effective Practice in e-learning’ with supporting video clips for October 2004.

13 Further evaluation studies
Further evaluated case studies different technologies and contexts Review of existing case study resources build links with repositories, e.g Ferl, Jorum Regional workshops on ‘Designing for Learning’ Evaluation of learning design tools, e.g. LAMS usability learner impact effective sharing of designs and approaches Learner consultation towards the second theme, ‘Understanding my Learning’

14 Practitioner consultation
Opportunities to participate through the experts’ working group through consultation exercises (see delegates’ pack) through workshops and focus groups (forthcoming) Impact on programme Feedback on outcomes of individual projects and studies Interpreting outcomes and developing recommendations Identifying priorities Building links with other ongoing work Taking part in further studies

15 Activity What are the key ingredients for effective (i.e. pedagogically sound)e-learning? Give an example of effective e-learning in your community 3 Priorities for the e-learning and Pedagogy Programme

16 Designing for Learning
Helen Beetham Consultant, e-Learning and Pedagogy

17 What do we mean by… Designing for learning (broad term)?
Designing, coordinating, planning, orchestrating and managing learning tasks as part of a learning session or programme A ‘practitioner planning’ view on a learning situation, e.g. resulting in a lesson plan or a LAMS design Learning Design (narrow term)? A new IMS specification for sequences of interaction between learners and system components (compare LOM for content, PDPs/LR for learner data) A sequence of interactions specified according to LD Does ‘Learning Design’ in this narrow sense provide a good framework for understanding and supporting the process of ‘Designing for Learning’?

18 Why the interest in learning design?
Widespread adoption of designed, standards-based learning environments and tools Pedagogical issues… appear to have been of secondary concern until now. JISC/UCISA (2003) First generation VLEs do not obviously support innovative or diverse learning activities… [They are] strongly based around information transmission .. with little consideration given to the activities that the learners themselves might engage in Britain and Liber (2004) Convergence of pedagogical research and practitioner education around ideas of learner-centredness, ‘active’, constructive learners, outcomes-based teaching with emphasis on relevant tasks Note that practitioners themselves articulate a need for discussion, conversation, ‘common terms’, while the DfES e-learning strategy unit wants to focus on ‘design tools’. Interesting dichotomy which we will return to.

19 Why the interest in learning design?
Practitioner demand (from consultation): ‘curriculum design’, ‘practical examples of learning activities’, ‘designing activities within VLEs’ (note the popularity of Salmon’s (2003) e-tivities) ‘a means of describing practice’, ‘a means of mapping theory onto practice’ ‘a means of mapping activities onto outcomes’, ‘a common set of terms for all of this’ E-learning strategy: Engaging teachers and lecturers through simple e-learning design tools would bring them closer to experimenting with pedagogical design DfES (2003) Note that practitioners themselves articulate a need for discussion, conversation, ‘common terms’, while the DfES e-learning strategy unit wants to focus on ‘design tools’. Interesting dichotomy which we will return to.

20 What is effective practice in designing for learning?
a process that is acceptable to practitioners, i.e. supports or enhances their approach to learning makes acceptable demands on their time and skills effective outcomes for learners, i.e. planned learning outcomes are achieved and/or the learner experience (motivation, participation, enjoyment, collaboration) is enhanced a means of sharing (and reflecting on?) practice e.g. through sharable sequences, ‘designs’ etc or through more explicit representation of practice Reason for focusing on this framework specifically is that it addresses a number of questions we have already opened up.

21 Key tasks (from Review: e-learning models)
Define a range of practice models, i.e. distinct but comparable approaches among which practitioners, working in a specific context, can make an informed choice. Ensure any framework or terminology has recognition and usability in the practitioner communities Consider theoretical (explanatory) models insofar as these provide general frameworks for discussing, comparing and evaluating practice models (especially in relation to learner experience). Map practice models to technical standards and specifications to ensure that future systems are compatible with the needs of learners and teachers. Evaluate tools to support designing for learning Focus on learning activity/task as the basic unit of modelling: fits with conclusions from UKeU, CANDLE, Dialog+ and work at the OU (eLTN)

22 Designing for Learning (1)
Developing models and frameworks apply specific instances of e-learning in context Building case studies Descriptive framework (modelling tool) Evaluation framework (evaluation tool) apply Framework with examples of effective practice analyse review collate evaluate Practitioner consultation & needs analysis refine generate Models/descriptions of different approaches describe evaluate Evaluated and enriched models/ descriptions

23 Designing for Learning (2)
Reviewing interventions in practice Researching/evaluating interventions Review of resources, toolkits and guidance Research into effectiveness of different interventions define elaborate Review of learning design tools Series of evaluations of tools in use support develop evaluate Tools, resources & standards to support & communicate effective practice develop recommend Framework with examples of effective practice

24 Outcomes to date Review of e-learning models
Review of learning design tools Consultation events and online forum (eped-experts) Draft framework for planning e-learning approaches and activities completion by end July Draft framework for ‘moving on practice’ Case studies and video case studies published October LAMS evaluation programme outline available: training begins 7th July Recommendations, and refined research/ development programme ongoing

25 Key issues in designing for learning
Is ‘learning activity’ the best focus of e-learning research and development? How should we describe, differentiate and share (e-)learning activities? Need for a common framework of description How do practitioners currently conceive and plan (e-)learning activities? What tools, resources and opportunities for dialogue do they have? What tools, resources etc are most effective? Which approaches to designing for learning are effective in which learning contexts? Does the LD specification offer: a good fit with definitions of learning activity used by learners, practitioners and theorists? a sound basis for design of supporting systems?

26 A specification for learning activities (H.Beetham, Feb ‘04)
Environment available tools, facilities, services, resources, environments etc Learner(s) needs, motives, prior experience of learning, social and interpersonal skills, learning styles and approaches Outcome subject/discipline area, target knowledge/ skills Knowledge represented in specific media and formats; skills facilitated through specific tools; impact of learning environments on the meaning of knowledge and skills Prior subject knowledge and skills of learner(s), prior conceptions, motivation to achieve specific outcomes, match of style/ approach to content Prior experience of learner(s) with tools, environments, services; match of learning style and approach to affordances of learning environment Activity ‘interaction of learner with environment, leading to planned outcome’ A specification for learning activities (H.Beetham, Feb ‘04)

27 Further information

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