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Multitiered Interventions

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1 Multitiered Interventions
Using Scientific Research-Based Interventions to Improve Outcomes for All Students Multitiered Interventions 1

2 A Multi-Tiered Service Delivery Model
SRBI implementation is a continuum of service delivery options available in each school. Developing a multi-tiered model requires efficient use of resources and utilizing instructional “teaming.” ( Burns & Gibbons, 2008, p. 122) Not a “new initiative” that will pass as a trend Emphasize SRBI as process and system (with key principles and particular processes) for providing “appropriate instruction and interventions” for all students It is a framework for continuous improvement

3 Intervention Priorities
Literacy (Reading and Writing) Mathematics Inappropriate Student Actions/Behaviors The above areas need to be examined in relationship to adult actions. -2ist Century learners and citizens require a high degree of literacy, mathematical understanding, cooperative behavior, critical thinking and problem-solving skills Our goal is to graduate learners – who are able to contribute and provide for self and others in this society

4 Triage of Students Needing Intervention
What can we do to prevent/intervene in Tier 1 (differentiated instruction, whole group re-teach)? Which students require Tier 2 intervention (supplemental small group instruction)? Which students require Tier 3 intervention (intensive very small group or individualized instruction)? Tier 1 intervention might include: Problem of day for re-teaching (idea from horizontal pairs of teachers) Schoolwide re-teaching when vertical team (whole school ) see areas students fell down on a benchmark assessment. Tier 2 supplemental instruction might include: -direct instruction decoding groups for 2nd grade students who have not mastered word attack skills in gradesK,1,2 -practice and drill in math fact fluency for 5th grade students who have not mastered multiplication and division facts (more time on task) Students may require direct entry into Tier 3 in such cases as: -At the secondary level, if students are significantly below peers (2-3+ years) in reading or mathematics they may require Direct entry into Tier 3 -ELL students with little formal reading acquisition in their native language may require intensive reading services. REMEMBER THE GOAL: TO IMPROVE OUTCOMES FOR STUDENTS and TO KNOW BY DATA Tier 3 is not a ‘life sentence” – a vehicle for reaching goals – (analogous to surgery and intensive care or treatment)

5 What is an intervention?
Intervention= specific, targeted remedial techniques (McCook, 2006, p.51) Interventions are strategic, purposeful adult actions that prevent learning difficulties and accelerate, and/or enrich student learning. (Cappello, et. al. 2008) For all students – prevent, accellerate

6 (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2005, p.8)
Intervention Specific activities and procedures designed to reduce significantly the difference between what a student can currently do and what he or she is expected to do. Interventions need to be empirically validated with evidence of effectiveness in school settings. (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2005, p.8) Can use the “double dose” and “round of antibiotic” analogy Interventions are “treatments of short duration intended to quickly and thoroughly “close the gap” in targeted skills and concepts where students are not showing proficiency. -In a prevention model, early diagnosis and treatment prevents compounding problems later on. -Tied to ASSESSMENT. Early intervention cannot occur without scheduled, valid, and reliable universal screening -SPECIFIC, TARGETED, LASER-LIKE FOCUS on skills deficits to close gap and conceptual misunderstandings to comprehend concepts

7 What Are Interventions?
Targeted assistance Depending on school level (elementary, middle, or high), interventions are administered by a classroom teacher, a specialized teacher, or an external interventionist Targeted instruction (Tier 2) Small group (4-6 students : 1 interventionist) Intensive instruction (Tier 3) Small group or Individual (1-3 students : 1 interventionist) and/or technology assisted (Tiers 1, 2 or 3) -Efficiency Model: Start with small, supplemental group, provide intervention, monitor student progress frequently -If rate of learning in Tier 2 (after several adjustments to the intervention strategy) will not help the student reach the learning target in a reasonable amount of time, we must adjust the variables of FREQUENCY, DURATION, and INTENSITY of our interventions.

8 Interventions Explicitly teach specific concepts, skills, and learning strategies Match curricular materials and instructional level Adapt modes of task presentation to address a variety of modalities Cue work habits/organizational skills Adjust direct instructional time Adjust amount of guided and independent practice McCook 2006 Not in order of importance or hierarchy COHN, 2008 Explicit instruction in concepts and skills (sound letter correspondence, decoding, magnitude, subtraction with re-grouping, social skills etc) Practice and drill (reading fluency, fact fluency) and discovery with manipulatives Computer-based instruction Self-monitoring strategy Problem solving strategies – academic and social/emotional learning Comprehension strategies Writing strategies and pre-planning

9 Explicit Instruction Regardless of the approach, teachers make instruction explicit when they explain how and when to use strategies and model implementation; help students use them in multiple contexts indifferent content areas and genres; scaffold support.

10 Interventions Ensure optimal pacing
Increase task structure (differentiation) Increase task relevant practice Mini lesson on skill deficits Change types and methods of corrective feedback McCook 2006 Not in order of importance or hierarchy -Feedback is critically important to teacher and student and only possible with frequent progress monitoring -Engaging student in the entire process of understanding where they are in relation to the learning target and what they need to know or be able to do (to reach the target) provides students with clarity about the task and motivation to work toward the goal. This is true with all students (elem. to HS) and is a critical feature of successful intervention programs. 10

11 Interventions are NOT Preferential seating Shortened assignments
Lowered expectations Parent contacts Classroom observations Suspension Retention Peer tutoring, unless its scientifically based (i.e., PALS – Peer Assisted Learning Strategies - Reading and Math) (McCook, 2006) McCook, 2006 -Interventions are not modifications or accommodations to the existing curriculum, they are targeted and supplemental instruction (tutorial or foundational approaches). -Interventions are not bureaucratic actions on the part of adults (paperwork, referrals, discussions) -Family contact is a communication, not an intervention because parent responses to a problem (or lack thereof) are beyond our “sphere of influence.” -Interventions are targeted school staff actions on behalf of the students

12 Use of Scientific Research-Based Interventions
Using interventions that have a proven track record increases the probability of positive outcomes for students. If an intervention does not result in positive outcomes for the student, then it is time to move on (as long as fidelity was determined) and employ interventions that are effective. (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2005) (McCook, 2006) -SRBI Interventions are not guaranteed in all content and social situations - we need to use a combination of research knowledge, professional judgment, and progress monitoring to respond appropriately to student’s learning needs. -Where SRBI information is not readily available, turn to research based approaches in closely related subject areas or use best practice from the Tier 1 field (example (concrete-representational-abstract learning model for Tier 1 mathematics is used in intervention strategies) 6 to 8 data points (McCook) 8 to 20 weeks (Hintze) of progress monitoring data are required to make an informed decision about student progress or lack thereof (McCook, 2006). Make sure intervention was carried out as planned (FIDELITY)

13 Intervention 3 minute discussion
What effective interventions do we see occurring already in our schools? Where? When? Make a list of effective interventions -Make a list will be used later in resource mapping

14 TIER 1 TIER 1 AT A GLANCE Students Interventionist Curriculum
Instruction Progress Monitoring Time Location Inclusion Whole Class Flexible Groups Classroom Teacher Common Curriculum Standards Driven SRBI Differentiated Common Formative & Summative Assessment Universal Assessment 3x per year 90 minutes daily in L.A. 60 minutes daily in Math General Classroom KEEP IT BRIEF- these components will be discussed further in future slides Some districts use 90 minutes plus an additional 30 (for interventions) for literacy

15 Tier 1 “Universal Intervention”
Are schools using best practice at Tier 1? Academic Domain Common Core Curriculums (culturally relevant and research-based) Common Formative Assessments Collaborative Data Decision Making Effective Teaching Strategies Differentiated Instruction Need to look at how we’re providing intervention in the core. Prevention Model: Efficiency: Deploy greatest resources to Tier 1 to provide highest quality, preventive education to 100% of the population. This reduces the number of students requiring intervention services. For schools and districts with substantial achievement problems, Tier 1 (the core) must be examined and strengthened to reduce numbers of students requiring intervention.

16 Tier 1 “Universal Intervention”
Are schools using best practice at Tier 1? Social-Emotional-Behavioral-Domain Schoolwide expectations for behavior are explicitly taught Consistency in school structures and routines Social-emotional learning curriculum School & classroom level behavior supports (re-teaching, incentives, recognition, corrective feedback) Universal common assessment (data review) and progress monitoring You may quote all or part of this statement Prevention (Walker et al., 1996) Decrease development of new problems Prevent worsening of existing problems Eliminate Triggers: Redesign learning/teaching environment Teach, monitor, & acknowledge pro-social behavior 16

17 Tier 1 Brainstorming Activity
Are the effective interventions we identified earlier research-based? How do we know? How can we find out? 5 minutes discussion with team A few examples to report to large group

18 SRBI Inspection We must become savvy consumers and explore the claims of “effectiveness” and “research base” in the educational programs & products we purchase and use. When Investigating SRBI: Visit commercial websites Read product literature Phone product representative and ask questions about research basis of product Questions to ask: Claims of effectiveness are based on: How many studies? What was the population and sample size? What was the degree of reliability & validity? Are the results applicable to our population? Is this product useful and do-able in our setting? -You do not need an advanced degree to be “research savvy” Using search engines such as google, google scholar and web libraries you can effortlessly access information about given strategies, products, programs. Searches that produce little results should make one wonder “is this a good strategy to try if I can find FEW or NO REFERENCES for it? Would I want someone using an unknown strategy with my child?

19 Tier 2 TIER 2 AT A GLANCE Students Interventionist Curriculum
Instruction Progress Monitoring Time Location Small Groups 4-6 : 1 Grouped by same Skill or strategy Classroom Teacher Specialist Instructional Aide, Tutor or Para SRBI that supplements Tier 1 SRBI procedures, programs & materials Probes or mini- assessments Minimum every 2 wks. Recommend weekly 30-45 minute sessions 3-4x per week General education classroom,lab, small instruction-al space -Tier 2 supplements, but does not supplant Tier 1 instruction. -Taking a student out of Language Arts class to “catch up” in intervention defeats the purpose by removing them from vital core instruction

20 Examples of Tier 2 Intervention
Academic Domain: Small Group (maximum 6:1) direct instruction in: Phonemic awareness Word decoding (explicit instruction) Reading fluency (practice) Whole number operations (hands on & explicit instruction) Fact fluency (computer-based practice & corrective feedback) Writing formats, structures & strategies Reading strategies using content-area materials Students at Tier 2 may require multiple interventions simultaneously or in sequence -Tier 2 interventions at elementary and secondary levels -Examine this list…Tier 2 intervention is “targeted.” Try to identify “root cause” of the reading, math or writing problem and start there. -Be strategic- too many interventions at once, dilutes the power of targeted instruction -May need an efficient diagnostic assessment to zero in on the “root cause” of problem (example: a quick diagnostic reading assessment will indicate which of these sills is weakest,…start there)

21 Examples of Tier 2 Intervention
Social-Emotional-Behavioral Domain: Small group (maximum 6:1)direct instruction in: Self control or impulse control strategies Social skills training Anger management strategies Coping skills training for anxiety/ fears/ withdrawal Small group supports for absenteeism / truancy Small organizational homeroom with direct instruction in organizational strategies Study skills strategies Students at Tier 2 may require multiple interventions simultaneously or in sequence -Tier 2 interventions at elementary and secondary levels- 2 slides -Point out that All social-emotional-behavioral interventions do not belong solely to guidance, social worker or psychologist. Teaching teams can problem solve ways to support students on team.

22 Tier 2 Brainstorming Activity
What interventions are we currently offering to small groups of students? In the academic domain? In the social-emotional/behavioral domain? Are our interventions research-based? Are we targeting the intervention for specific students’ needs? 4 to 5 minutes

23 Tier 3 TIER 3 AT A GLANCE Students Interventionist Curriculum
Instruction Progress Monitoring Time Location Small Group 1-3 : 1 Grouped by same skill deficits Classroom Teacher Specialist Instructional Aide, Tutor or Para SRBI that supplements Tier 1 and Tier 2 SRBI procedures, programs & materials Probes or mini- assessments Minimum weekly Recommend 2-3 times/week 60 minute session or two 30 minute sessions Daily General education classroom, lab, or small space for instruction

24 Examples of Tier 3 Interventions
Academic Domain: Individualized or small group (maximum 3:1) instruction in: phonemic awareness instruction standardized phonological instruction number sense instruction writing mechanics Teaching of content specific vocabulary and academic content instruction Students at Tier 3 may require multiple interventions simultaneously or in sequence Tier 3 interventions at elementary and secondary levels

25 Examples of Tier 3 Interventions
Social-Emotional-Behavioral Domain: Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) & Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) for students with intensive social–emotional/behavioral needs. Individualized anger management plan with de-escalation, time-out, & counseling contingencies. 1:1 organizational instruction & support. Student behavior charting & reflection plans. Individualized incentive & recognition programs. Students at Tier 3 may require multiple interventions simultaneously or in sequence -Repeat that all social-emotional-behavioral interventions do not belong solely to guidance, social worker or psychologist. Teaching teams can problem solve ways to support students on team. -Example: Time-out, Time-Away, Time in Office (every teacher has a timeout space in room, a “time away” teacher partner where student can take a time out if timeout in class isn’t working, and lastly go to office. This can become standard practice on teams.

26 Tiers 2 and 3: Personnel EVERYONE in the building is a potential resource Re-conceptualize who does what Personnel deployed AFTER needs are identified WHERE matters less and less REMEMBER, student performance matters more than labels, locations and staff needs. A school cannot deliver intensive services to more than 7% of the population

27 Stacy A first grade student who moved to East School in December.
On the January benchmark ORF assessment, she read 4 correct words per minute (cwpm). According to benchmark goals for Winter of 1st grade, Stacy is at high risk for failing to meet the end of year goal. An analysis of assessment protocols indicated that Stacy: Had established phonemic awareness Knew all her letter sound correspondences Lacked a strategy for decoding words Knew very few sight words

28 Stacy’s Instructional Plan
20% Take part in all classroom reading instruction (i.e., core instruction). Receive small group intervention (5-6 students) focusing on decoding, for 30 minutes, four time a week. Monitor progress weekly.

29 Progress Monitoring Aimline

30 Stacy’s Instructional Plan: Adjustments
5% Receive more intensive systematic intervention program 45 minutes, 5 days a week with group of 2-3 students. Review sight words with classroom teacher 10 minutes, 2 times a day Preview critical components of core instruction with instructional assistant before whole class instruction. Continue to monitor progress weekly. Literacy team meet to review Stacy’s progress weekly.

31 Progress Monitoring A change in intervention Aimline

32 Tier 3 Brainstorming Activity
What intensive interventions are we currently offering to very small groups of students or individuals? In the academic domain? In the social-emotional-behavioral domain? Are our interventions SRBI? Are our interventions being provided at the level of intensity that is needed form some students? 3 to 5 minutes

33 Reading & Math Standards & Critical Content
Resources to guide intervention decisions: Reading CT Blueprint for Reading Success (2000) Beyond the Blueprint (2007) National Reading Panel (2000) Mathematics 2007 CT Mathematics Standards NCTM Focal Points (2006) National Math Panel Report (2008)

34 Resources to Guide Selection of Social Emotional Learning (SEL) Curriculums
Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL) University of Chicago & USDE Social-Emotional Learning Standards (Illinois Ed. “Safe and Sound”) Developmental Continuum (behavior standards from primary school through late adolescence) Three standards: Self Awareness & Self Management Self Awareness & Interpersonal Relationships Decision-Making and Responsibility -21st century skills for emotional intelligence in working with diverse groups of people -Standards list what a student should “know and be able to do” socially, emotionally and behaviorally at each life stage from pre-k through 12. -Excellent resource for evaluating our existing developmental guidance programs and before purchasing or developing new programs.

35 For Starters….On-Line Resources:

36 Tier 2 & 3 Interventionists and Locations
Elementary School: More likely to be in the classroom with the classroom teacher as the interventionist. Interventions are above and beyond Tier 1 core practices (e.g., effective teaching strategies, flexible groups, differentiation). Secondary School: More likely to be in a separate classroom or lab with a specially trained interventionist or in a specially designed course. -Point out that this depends on the intervention and the distance from the current grade level -Elem teachers = expected to be trained in early literacy and reading acquisition. Teacher = first point of contact for reading and math -Secondary level= 7-12 certification does not include reading acquisition or early math concepts…may require intervention by specialists, scripted programs or specific training for classroom teachers. The “cliff “ seems to start around grade 3 when we assume that students only need to work on READING COMPREHENSION and that they have already acquired all their early reading skills. Until this becomes an actual reality, we must provide intervention for students lacking these critical reading skills. The same goes for mathematics, writing and behavior.

37 Some Examples of Tier 2 Interventions in Elementary School
Within classroom intervention by classroom teacher or specialist Within classroom scripted intervention by para or tutor Grade level or teaching team “Enrichment and Intervention Block” In addition to core reading and math At the elementary level, it may be best to implement standard treatment protocols for Tier 2 intervention at the classroom level with periodic consultation with the school intervention team. Standard treatment protocols are supplemental instructional “programs” or “units of study” for small groups of students who all share the same skill deficit.

38 Some Examples of Tier 2 Interventions in Secondary School
Need teachers with reading or math expertise (trained in the teaching of foundational concepts and skills) Often use lab (reading lab, math lab) Durational classes (flexible groups) in addition to core math and reading classes May use a specifically designed course with credit Strategies: Scaffolded Reading Experience Organizational Framework (Graves, Juel, & Graves, 2001) Steps: Prereading – Identify the strategy to activate prior knowledge and build background information. Reading – Promote visualization strategies, knowledge of text structure, and self regulation. Model and demonstrate. Postreading – Determine strategy students will use to demonstrate knowledge of content. List-group-label strategy (pre-reading) Visualization (during reading) (use of media, personal letters, recordings, music from era) – create pictures for comprehension Self-regulation – gradual release – from teacher to student Story pyramid Identify main character using one word Describe main character using two words Describe setting using three words Describe problem/conflict using four words Describe an event near the beginning using five words Describe an event near the middle using six words Describe an event near the end using seven words Describe the solution or conclusion in eight words The above is for narrative texts but could be modified for expository texts Change character to topic

39 Some Examples of Tier 3 Implementation
Tier 3 – Intensive Instruction Lack of progress in Tier 2 or direct entry to Tier 3 following universal assessment Diagnostic Assessment & Individual Intervention Plan Daily 60 minute sessions (indiv. or groups of 2-3) Intervention by specialist, teacher, or specially trained paraprofessional with scripted program Frequent progress monitoring Requires schedule changes -This Tier is time and staff intensive. Tier 3 is reserved only for students who have not responded to intervention in Tier 2. It is inefficient to use 1:1 or 1:3 ratios for students who would progress nicely with 1:6 ratios. This is consistent with the prevention model’s conservation of resources approach. -This Tier is akin to the reading or math “intensive care unit.” It requires very high levels of intensity, frequency and duration. - If students are not responding in Tier 3 after several strategies with very frequent progress monitoring (6-8 data points, McCook 2006) it is very appropriate to seek an evaluation to provide greater understanding of the student’s individual learning profile and needs.

40 Entrance and Exit Criteria
Establish criteria ahead of time Step Down Schedules (i.e., “gradual release”) After exiting, universal assessment provides “safety net” for all students How will classroom teachers embed successful intervention strategies into core general education practices? Establishing criteria essential to “continuum of intervention/ instruction” What are cut points for intervention? When are students entered into intervention? (who decides?) When are students exited (may have a scheduling impact, esp at the MS and HS level) This Criteria clarifies what is responsibility of Tier 1 teachers vs. Tier 2 & 3 teachers? Step down schedules? Transition all at once? Transition over time (4x per week to 3x per week to 2x per week to exit)?

41 Fidelity of Implementation
Ensure that intervention (instruction) is delivered as it was designed …. Adopt a quality assurance system including: Structured schedules for progress monitoring Structures for data collection & data analysis Fidelity checks using logs or notes for each intervention session Scheduled meetings for consultations between interventionists (especially important when paraprofessionals and tutors provide intervention Well developed communication system between tiers 1,2,3 and regular reports to families Integrity of the system results in improved student performance documentation of all regular education attempts BEFORE referring to special education. Quality Control accountability review continuous improvement in all three tiers. Requires development of a system of Written protocols at every level of intervention Use of daily logs or notes Data collection and review of progress Ensure an accurate and complete achievement data base Parent communication and support Communication system across tiers Requires administrative leadership, close involvement and support Walkthrough protocols

42 SRBI Planning Tool Working with your teammates, discuss the following questions and record your responses on the SRBI Planning Tool page. Regarding your districts multitiered interventions/continuum of supports: What is your current state? What is your desired state? What are your next steps? Planning time – 30 min Have teams use the SRBI Planning Tool document to examine their Current Reality Desired Reality Sharing time – 15 min Have each team share one current and desired reality 42

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